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<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Dear Marmamers,</span></p>
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<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""><br>
</span></p>
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<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">We wish to announce the following PhD studentship opportunity:</span></p>
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<b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""><br>
</span></b></p>
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<b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">PhD Opportunity:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
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<b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""> </span></b></p>
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<b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Project title: </span>
</b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Coping styles: understanding individual differences in stress reactivity in a wild population of grey seals (<i>Halichoerus grypus</i>) and their fitness consequences<o:p></o:p></span></p>
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"Arial","sans-serif""> </span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Project supervisors:
<o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">           
</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";
mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">Dr. Sean Twiss (Durham University):
</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""><a href="mailto:s.d.twiss@durham.ac.uk">s.d.twiss@durham.ac.uk</a><b>,<o:p></o:p></b></span></p>
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<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-bidi-font-weight:bold">Dr. Patrick Pomeroy (SMRU, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St. Andrews)</span><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""><o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
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"Arial","sans-serif""> </span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Application deadline</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">: 31<sup>st</sup> January 2014<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""> </span></b></p>
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<b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Project description:
</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Within animal populations individuals differ in their ability to cope with stress. Most wild animal populations are subject to increasing anthropogenic stressors. Even non-consumptive activities,
 such as the rapidly expanding ecotourism industry, can add stressors to animals. Quantitatively assessing how individual animals react to, and cope with, anthropogenic stress is critical in determining ‘acceptable’ levels of disturbance in situations where
 human-wildlife interactions are inevitable. However, behavioural measures can be misleading or difficult to interpret in terms of how stressed and individual actually is, and should be supported by physiological evidence of when stress becomes distress. This
 project will investigate the physiological underpinnings of behavioural types in wild pinnipeds.
<b> </b>Individual grey seals are known to differ in behavioural type, along a<b>
</b>proactive-reactive axis. Proactive and reactive behavioural types are regarded as differing coping styles, with differing behavioural and physiological responses in the face of stressors, both natural and/or anthropogenic. Laboratory studies suggest that
 individual differences in stress reactivity may be controlled by differences in </span>
<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""> are
</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">associated with differences in heart rate (HR) parameters. HR</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""> reflects the autonomic balance between the slowing effects of
 parasympathetic nerves and the accelerating effects of sympathetic nerves, a balance that is suggested to differ between pro- and reactive individuals.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
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<span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">            This project aims to investigate the physiological underpinnings of behavioural types, in wild, free-ranging grey seals, by the application of heart rate data-loggers to individually identified
 seals during the breeding season. The project will (i) use established observational and experimental approaches to classify individual female grey seal behavioural types, (ii) examine whether physiological indicators (heart rate and breathing rate) relate
 to behavioural type, and (iii) whether individual variation in physiological measures contribute to variation in maternal investment strategies.
<span style="letter-spacing:-.1pt">Over 3 consecutive breeding seasons, field data collection will involve: (1) identifying individual breeding females using established photo-ID protocols, (2) observations to provide metrics describing behavioural type, (3)
 application of heart rate monitors allied to detailed observations from video footage to record physiological proxies. Behavioural and physiological data will be analysed with respect to natural and anthropogenic stressors experienced by the focal seals. Direct
 measures of maternal expenditure will be gained from the identified females, allowing examination of how differences in coping style influence patterns of maternal reproductive investment.</span><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><b><span style="letter-spacing:-.1pt">Potential candidates</span></b><span style="letter-spacing:-.1pt"> must
</span>fulfil the University’s requirements regarding English language ability (see below)<span style="letter-spacing:-.1pt"> and will require (i) a clear understanding of behavioural ecology theory and practice and (ii) the ability to conduct prolonged and
 isolated fieldwork in harsh conditions, and would ideally have experience of; (i) behavioural observation of wild pinnipeds, and (ii) ecological modelling approaches. Candidates should also hold a UK driving licence (or equivalent).</span>
<span style="letter-spacing:
-.1pt">The student will gain extensive training in behavioural observation, application of biotelemetry devices, compilation and maintenance of photo-ID database, spatial data manipulation and analyses within a GIS, statistical
 analyses (including quantifying ‘personality’ and analysis of HR data), organisation of fieldwork logistics and safety in remote, isolated locations.
<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpFirst" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:
"Arial","sans-serif""> </span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"">Reference:</span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:"Arial","sans-serif""> Twiss SD,<b>
</b>Cairns C, Culloch RM, Richards SA & Pomeroy PP (<b>2012</b>). Behavioural Variation in Female Grey Seal (<i>Halichoerus grypus</i>) Reproductive Performance Correlates to Proactive-Reactive Behavioural Types.
<b><i><span style="color:#303030">PLoS ONE</span></i><span style="color:#303030">
</span></b><span style="color:#303030">7(11): e49598. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049598<o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpMiddle" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:
"Arial","sans-serif";color:#303030"> </span></p>
<p class="MsoListParagraphCxSpLast" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:
"Arial","sans-serif";color:#303030"> </span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><b><u>Notes on funding:
</u></b>This project is in <u>competition with others for funding</u>. The potential funding comes from the Durham Doctoral Studentship programme
<span style="color:#333333;background:white">(DDS), which funds both tuition fees and living costs.</span> Success will depend on the quality of applications received, relative to those for competing projects.
<a name="faculty"></a>Details of the Durham Doctoral Studentships can be found at:<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><a href="https://www.dur.ac.uk/science.faculty/postgraduatefunding/#faculty">https://www.dur.ac.uk/science.faculty/postgraduatefunding/#faculty</a><o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><b><u>Notes on eligibility:
</u></b><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
color:#333333;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB">Applicants must be applying to start a full-time PhD in the Faculty in October 2014. They must have fulfilled the University's requirements regarding English
 language ability and must not require a pre-sessional course as a condition of their place. See:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><a href="https://www.dur.ac.uk/englishlanguage.centre/englishlanguage.courses/prospectivestudents/summer-pre-sessional/entryrequirements/" target="_blank"><span style="color:purple">https://www.dur.ac.uk/englishlanguage.centre/englishlanguage.courses/prospectivestudents/summer-pre-sessional/entryrequirements/</span></a><o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";color:#333333;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB"> </span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><b><u>Notes on application procedure:</u></b> If you are interested in applying and/or require further details, in the first instance contact the supervisor (Dr Twiss:
<a href="mailto:s.d.twiss@durham.ac.uk"><span style="color:windowtext">s.d.twiss@durham.ac.uk</span></a>.) with a CV and covering letter, detailing your reasons for applying for the project. Dr Twiss<span style="background:white"> will then request the best
 applicants to submit a full application for DDS funding via the University’s online application process.</span><o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;">Candidates wishing to proceed with a full application must then complete the University's postgraduate online application form and state, in response to the question ‘how you plan to
 fund your studies’, that you wish to be considered for a Durham Doctoral Studentship.<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;">The following documents should be submitted, by the deadline specified, using the University’s online application process:<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 54pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -18pt;">
<!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Symbol;
mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-language:
EN-GB">·<span style="font-size: 7pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">        </span></span>The
 completed application form (including a description of the proposed research project prepared by the candidate (no more than one side of A4). This can be based on the above project description.<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 54pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -18pt;">
<!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Symbol;
mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-language:
EN-GB">·<span style="font-size: 7pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">        
</span></span><!--[endif]-->CV<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 54pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -18pt;">
<!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Symbol;
mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-language:
EN-GB">·<span style="font-size: 7pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">        
</span></span><!--[endif]-->Two references for the candidate<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 54pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -18pt;">
<!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Symbol;
mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-language:
EN-GB">·<span style="font-size: 7pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">        
</span></span><!--[endif]-->Copies of academic certificates and/or transcripts<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 54pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -18pt;">
<!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Symbol;
mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-language:
EN-GB">·<span style="font-size: 7pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">        
</span></span><!--[endif]-->Evidence of English language ability, e.g. IELTS or TOEFL transcripts.<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 54pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: -18pt;">
<!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-size:10.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt;font-family:Symbol;
mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol;mso-fareast-language:
EN-GB">·<span style="font-size: 7pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">        
</span></span><!--[endif]--><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify;"><b>For further details, see:<o:p></o:p></b></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36pt;">
https://www.dur.ac.uk/postgraduate/apply/<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36pt;">
https://www.dur.ac.uk/postgraduate/finance/<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;"><o:p> </o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;">For further information on <u>
the application procedure</u>, contact:<o:p></o:p></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt; text-indent: 36pt; background-color: white; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">
Postgraduate Admissions<o:p></o:p></p>
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School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences<o:p></o:p></p>
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Science Laboratories<o:p></o:p></p>
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South Road<o:p></o:p></p>
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Durham University<o:p></o:p></p>
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DH1 3LE, UK<o:p></o:p></p>
<p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0.0001pt 36pt; background-color: white; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">
<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><font size="2">Telephone: +44 (0) 191 334 1200 / +44 (0) 191 334 9167<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><br>
Fax: +44 (0) 191 334 1201<br>
email:<span class="apple-converted-space"> </span><a href="mailto:biosci.pgsecretary@durham.ac.uk" style="background-color: inherit;"><span style="color: windowtext;">biosci.pgsecretary@durham.ac.uk</span></a></font><span style="font-size: 11pt;"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<div><br>
<div style="font-family:Tahoma; font-size:13px">_________________________________<br>
<br>
Dr. Sean Twiss,<br>
Lecturer in Behavioural Ecology,<br>
School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences,<br>
South Road,<br>
Durham University,<br>
Durham, DH1 3LE,<br>
UK.<br>
<br>
E-mail: s.d.twiss@durham.ac.uk<br>
Web-site: <a href="https://www.dur.ac.uk/biosciences/about/schoolstaff/academicstaff/?id=1132">
https://www.dur.ac.uk/biosciences/about/schoolstaff/academicstaff/?id=1132</a>
<div style="font-family:Tahoma; font-size:13px">Blog: <a href="http://sealbehaviour.wordpress.com/">
http://sealbehaviour.wordpress.com/</a></div>
<div style="font-family:Tahoma; font-size:13px"><br>
Tel: +44 (0)191 334 1350 (office)<br>
Tel: +44 (0)191 334 1247 (lab)<br>
Fax: +44 (0)191 334 1201</div>
<div style="font-family:Tahoma; font-size:13px">_________________________________<br>
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