[MARMAM] Guadalupe fur seal article

Casandra Gálvez kasandragalvez at hotmail.com
Wed Jun 3 15:23:42 PDT 2020


Hello

I just want to share this article about Guadalupe fur seal growth and survival.

Impacts of extreme ocean warming on the early development of a marine top predator: The Guadalupe fur seal
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2019.102220
Highlights

*

The northeast Pacific Marine Heatwave occurred in 2014-2016.

*

An anomaly of +1 °C reduces the weight of Guadalupe fur seal neonates in ~1.7 kg.

*

The lowest neonatal survival coincided with the highest warming variability (2015).

*

Extreme warming in 2014-2015 could have reduced nursing females prey availability.

*

Climate change would affect this subspecies' early development.

Abstract

>From fall 2013 through 2015, a large-scale, multi-year warm water anomaly occurred in the northeast Pacific Ocean. The phenomenon had negative impacts on some oceanic predators, including higher mortalities and poor body conditions. We studied the effect of this warm water anomaly on the weight gain of Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) neonates off the coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Individuals were captured, marked, and weighed every 13-15 days, up to 60 days of age, during the early nursing seasons (mid-June to mid-August) of 2014-2016 at this subspecies' only reproductive colony, located on Guadalupe Island. The body weight was measured at each capture and recapture. A hierarchical Bayesian model was used to explore the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the neonates' weights. The hierarchical structure included connected models for the spring-summer SST trend around the colony, the neonatal body weight gain with age, and the relationship between the anomalies of both variables. Marked neonates were also tracked in order to estimate survival rates during first two months of age. Overall, positive SST anomalies had a negative effect on neonatal body weight gain. The northeast Pacific Marine Heatwave precipitated the lowest weights at birth and the slowest weight gain in 2014, as well as low weights and the lowest survival rate in 2015, likely due to the persistence of the warm anomalies. The evident sensitivity of Guadalupe fur seal neonates to regional warming conditions highlights their vulnerability under scenarios of climate change, which could impede this subspecies' continued recovery from near extinction.


Best regards,

Casandra Gálvez,

Enviado desde Outlook Mobile<https://aka.ms/blhgte>
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Today's Topics:

   1. New publications on whale acoustics use (burnhamr)
   2. New paper on cetacean abundance in the Central North Atlantic
      (Daniel Pike)
   3. Competition Announcement - bycatch mitigation research
      (Lydia Tivenan)
   4. New publication: Cetacean Skeletons Demonstrate Ecologically
      Relevant Variation in Intraskeletal Stable Isotopic Values
      (Kerri J. Smith)
   5. New paper about Effect ranges of underwater noise from anchor
      vibration operations in the Wadden Sea (Schaffeld, Tobias)
   6. Request for information on harbor porpoise behavior (Bill Keener)


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Message: 1
Date: Tue, 02 Jun 2020 09:51:23 -0700
From: burnhamr <burnhamr at uvic.ca>
To: marmam at lists.uvic.ca
Subject: [MARMAM] New publications on whale acoustics use
Message-ID: <fc219314c657f189a14a17d28c84f564 at uvic.ca>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

I'm happy to share 2 new publications
The first is a continuation of the discussion of 'Whale Geography'
(previous discussion here:https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133317734103)
Burnham, R.E. 2020. Whale Geography: A species-centric approach applied
to migration' 44 (3)_: _419-434
It can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133320922417

Abstract:
Understanding the biogeography of a species begins by mapping its
presence over time and space. The use of home ranges, breeding and
feeding areas, migration paths and movement patterns between the two are
also inherent to their ecology. However, this is an overly simplified
view of life histories. It ignores nuanced and complex exchanges and
responses to the environment and between conspecifics. Having previously
advocated for a more species-centric approach in a discussion of 'whale
geography', I look to better understand the driving factors of
migrations, and the information streams guiding the movement, which is
key to the biogeography of large whale species. First, I consider the
processes underlying the navigation capacities of species to complete
migration, and how, and over what scales, sensory information
contributes to cognitive maps. I specifically draw on examples of
large-scale, _en masse_ migrators to then apply this to whales. I focus
on the acoustic sense as the principal way whales gain and exchange
information, drawing on a case study of grey whale (_Eschrichtius
robustu_s) calling behaviour to illustrate my arguments. Their
consistent employment of far-propagating calls appears to be tied to
travel behaviours and probably aids navigation and social cohesion. The
range over which calls are being propagated to conspecifics, or perhaps
being echoed back to the individual, underlies the distance over which
the cognitive maps are being both formed and employed. I believe
understanding these processes edges us closer to understanding species
biogeography.

The second is adaptation of a paper myself and colleagues published on
our glider research in the offshore waters of the Canadian Pacific that
has been adapted for a younger audience in Frontiers for Young Minds.

Burnham R.E. 2020. Learning About Whales by Listening for Their Calls.
Front. Young Minds. 8:55.
Accessed here:
https://kids.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frym.2020.00055

Abstract:
Populations of large whales have been reduced to very low numbers,
primarily by hunting. As the number of whales became smaller, they
became harder to find. In the past, whalers knew where to go to hunt,
but now scientists who study whales can find it hard to know which areas
whales use to feed, breed, or even travel through. We now realize how
important whales are for keeping oceans healthy, so scientists are
trying to learn as much as they can about large whales. Underwater sound
recordings are helping us find some of the rarest whales in the
northeast Pacific by listening for their calls. We use underwater
microphones, called hydrophones, set on the ocean floor and on ocean
gliders, which are small submarines, to help us learn about where whales
are, when they are there, and most importantly, what they are doing.

The original article this is adapted from is:
Burnham, R. E., Duffus, D. A., and Mouy, X. 2019. The presence of large
whale species in Clayoquot Sound and its offshore waters. _Cont. Shelf
Res._ 177:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2019.03.004

If you would like a PDF of any of these papers feel free to contact me

Rianna Burnham, PhD.
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Message: 2
Date: Mon, 1 Jun 2020 19:23:19 -0400
From: Daniel Pike <kinguq at gmail.com>
To: marmam at lists.uvic.ca
Subject: [MARMAM] New paper on cetacean abundance in the Central North
        Atlantic
Message-ID:
        <CAHHp1zZ27mhNDmFzzU3qdJtSPxrwtMyvQGhh1FRetfsJWdtBxA at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

We are pleased to announce the publication of the following paper in NAMMCO
Scientific Publications:
Pike, D.G., Gunnlaugsson, T., Mikkelsen, B., Halld?rsson, S.D., V?kingsson,
G.A., Acquarone, M. & Desportes, G. (2020). Estimates of the Abundance of
Cetaceans in the Central North Atlantic From the T-NASS Icelandic and
Faroese Ship Surveys Conducted in 2007. *NAMMCO Scientific Publications *11.
https://doi.org/10.7557/3.5269

*ABSTRACT*
The Trans-North Atlantic Sightings Survey (T-NASS) carried out in June-July
2007 was the fifth in a series of large-scale cetacean surveys conducted
previously in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. The core survey area covered about
1.8 million nm? spanning from the Eastern Barents Sea at 34?E to the east
coast of Canada, and between 52?N and 78?N in the east and south to 42?N in
the west. We present design-based abundance estimates from the Faroese and
Icelandic vessel survey components of T-NASS, as well as results from
ancillary vessels that covered adjoining areas. The 4 dedicated survey
vessels used a Buckland-Turnock (B-T) mode with a tracker platform
searching an area ahead of the primary platform and tracking sightings to
provide data for bias correction. Both uncorrected estimates, using the
combined non-duplicate sightings from both platforms, and mark-recapture
estimates, correcting estimates from the primary platform for bias due to
perception and availability, are presented for those species with a
sufficient number of sightings. Corrected estimates for the core survey
area are as follows: fin whales (*Balaenoptera physalus*): 30,777
(CV=0.19); humpback whales (*Megaptera novaeangliae*): 18,105 (CV=0.43);
sperm whales (*Physeter macrocephalus*): 12,268 (CV=0.33); long-finned
pilot whales (*Globicephala melas*): 87,417 (CV=0.38); white-beaked
dolphins (*Lagenorhynchus albirostris*): 91,277 (CV=0.53); and white-sided
dolphins (*L. acutus*): 81,008 (CV=0.54). Uncorrected estimates only were
possible for common minke whales (*B. acutorstrata*): 12,427 (CV=0.27); and
sei whales (*B. borealis*): 5,159 (CV=0.47). Sighting rates from the
ancillary vessels, which used a single platform, were lower than those from
the dedicated vessels in areas where they overlapped. No evidence of
responsive movement by any species was detected, but there was some
indication that distance measurements by the primary platform may have been
negatively biased. The significance of this for the abundance estimates is
discussed. The relative merits of B-T over other survey modes are discussed
and recommendations for future surveys provided.

The paper is available for download here:
https://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/NAMMCOSP/article/view/5269

Best regards, Daniel Pike.
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Message: 3
Date: Wed, 3 Jun 2020 10:45:14 +0100
From: Lydia Tivenan <lydia.tivenan at fishtekmarine.com>
To: marmam at lists.uvic.ca
Subject: [MARMAM] Competition Announcement - bycatch mitigation
        research
Message-ID:
        <CAFvtKpUubiB2B+M2E8tbrZ1QRD6XazmgOUgyx=vzjJprjsCC-w at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

*Competition Announcement - Chance to win marine acoustic equipment for
bycatch mitigation research!*


To celebrate the recent publication, "Assessing the Effects of Banana
Pingers as Bycatch Mitigation Device for Harbour Porpoises *(Phocoena
phocoena)"* by Omeyer et al., 2020, Fishtek Marine in collaboration with
Chelonia LTD are running an exciting competition, for marine mammals
scientists working in bycatch mitigation research.  We are giving away
$8000 of marine acoustic equipment (x2 C-PODs, x1 cycling Banana pinger).


*Who should apply?*


Anyone working with fisheries with the aim of reducing cetacean bycatch and
ideally with the ability to publish scientific research. Applicants should
demonstrate a drive and strategy to achieve a conservation outcome on a
regional scale in the next 3 years. We would also welcome Government
regulators and fisheries authorities looking to comply with the new Marine
Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) import provisions to apply.  Preference for
those working in the gill, drift and set net fisheries with cetacean
bycatch issues and those working with Narrow Band High Frequency species
(NBHF) and protected species.

**Deadline for applications 30th June 2020**

Read Omeyer et al., 2020 (open access) paper:
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2020.00285/full

For more information about Fishtek Marine and how to apply:
https://www.fishtekmarine.com/competition/

Find out more about Chelonia LTD: https://www.chelonia.co.uk/

Many thanks,

Lydia



*Lydia Tivenan ? *Bycatch Mitigation Assistant, Fishtek Marine Ltd.

Unit 1a Webbers Way,

Dartington,

Devon. TQ9 6JY.

United Kingdom.

*t.* +44 (0)1803 225253

*e.* lydia.tivenan at fishtekmarine.com

*w.* http://www.fishtekmarine.com
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Message: 4
Date: Wed, 3 Jun 2020 08:19:02 -0500
From: "Kerri J. Smith" <smithkerrij at gmail.com>
To: marmam at lists.uvic.ca
Subject: [MARMAM] New publication: Cetacean Skeletons Demonstrate
        Ecologically Relevant Variation in Intraskeletal Stable Isotopic
        Values
Message-ID:
        <CALJn4qnireKFnwSj6OeCV8fBMH3tu6x3B5dRWsNS24an0a-Q2g at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Dear all,

We are pleased to share our recent publication on carbon and nitrogen
isotope variation in cetacean skeletons.

Smith KJ, Sparks JP, Timmons ZL and Peterson MJ (2020) Cetacean Skeletons
Demonstrate Ecologically Relevant Variation in Intraskeletal Stable
Isotopic Values. *Front. Mar. Sci.* 7:388. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00388

Conservation science requires quickly acquiring information and taking
action in order to protect species at risk of extinction. Stable isotope
measurements are one way to rapidly gather data regarding species? foraging
ecology and habitat use, and passively collected samples limit additional
stress to at-risk species. For these samples to be useful, however, we must
know how representative they are of the stable isotope ratios of the entire
organism. Bone tissue, often stored in museum collections or research
centers, may be the most readily available tissue from rare, endangered, or
extinct vertebrates, but using bone requires practitioners to understand
intraskeletal stable isotope variation. We sampled the same eight skeletal
elements from 72 cetacean skeletons from 14 species to evaluate
intraskeletal variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values. We found
considerably more variation than anticipated. Carbon intraskeletal ranges
varied from 0.4 to 7.6?, with 84.7% (*n* = 61) of skeletons having a range
>1?, and 55.5% (*n* = 40) exhibiting a range >2?. Similarly, nitrogen
intraskeletal ranges varied from 0.4 to 5.2?, with 59.7% (*n* = 43) of
skeletons exhibiting a range >1?, and 15.3% (*n* = 11) with a range >2?.
There were differences in which bones contributed most to intraskeletal
variation; however, we advise against using humeri and mandibles as these
bones presented the most consistent trends in deviation from the
intraskeletal means for both isotopes. The large intraskeletal variation we
observed is likely due to changes in foraging behavior or habitat use being
reflected differently in bone isotope ratios due to differences in bone
turnover rates. We suggest that for cetaceans, intraskeletal carbon isotope
ranges >1? and nitrogen ranges >2? are ecologically relevant, and that
using different bones from animals of the same population may produce false
positive differences in foraging behavior or habitat within the population
if intraskeletal variation is not considered. Future studies should use the
same bones from each animal and conduct species-specific analyses of
intraskeletal variation, if possible, when using specimens of opportunity.
Failure to consider this variation could lead to erroneous conclusions
regarding a species range or key habitats, jeopardizing conservation
efforts.

Cheers,
Kerri


*--Kerri J. Smith, Ph.D.*
Postdoctoral Researcher - Baylor University
Research Fellow - Smithsonian Institution
Website <https://kerrijsmith.wordpress.com/>

?The love for all living creatures is the most noble attribute of man.?
-Charles Darwin
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Message: 5
Date: Tue, 2 Jun 2020 12:26:49 +0000
From: "Schaffeld, Tobias" <Tobias.Schaffeld at tiho-hannover.de>
To: "marmam at lists.uvic.ca" <marmam at lists.uvic.ca>
Subject: [MARMAM] New paper about Effect ranges of underwater noise
        from anchor vibration operations in the Wadden Sea
Message-ID: <c3bc2c5c7cc545c0aba44044a1ae4021 at tiho-hannover.de>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

Dear Colleagues,

My Co-Authors and I are pleased to advertise our recent publication. We investigated the effect ranges of underwater noise from anchor vibration operations in the Wadden Sea. This technique was used as an alternative to pile-driving.

Citation:
Baltzer, J., Maurer, N., Schaffeld, T., Ruser, A., Schnitzler, J. G., and Siebert, U. (2020). ?Effect ranges of underwater noise from anchor vibration operations in the Wadden Sea,? J. Sea Res., 162, 101912. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2020.101912

Link to full paper:
https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1b9~o_VVcRgsQW

Highlights


?         Source level of the vibration embedment noise was 148.2 dB re 1 ?Pa2s.

?         Median sound exposure levels ranged from 120 to 99 dB re 1 ?Pa2s at distances between 394 and 2288 m.

?         Vibration embedment noise might exert a behavioural reaction on a local scale.

?         Marine mammals and fish may be affected to distances of 375 and 766 m, respectively.


Abstract:
Anchor pipe vibration embedment operations during the construction of seed mussel collectors were performed in the Wadden Sea, a designated World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2009. We recorded 200 min of underwater noise during the construction of seven anchor pipes. Underwater noise was recorded simultaneously at three positions with a water depth of 9 m with increasing distance to the construction site to assess the disturbance potential to the marine fauna. The recorded vibration embedment noise was a continuous sound with durations of 2?55 s, with most energy below 1 kHz and peak frequencies around 900 Hz. Background noise level at a distance of approximately 1 km increased around 13 dB at frequencies between 800 and 1000 Hz. We estimated the sound propagation by a non-linear logarithmic regression by means of the intercept, slope and attenuation factor, which allowed us to evaluate the received sound levels that reach an animal in certain distances from the construction s!
 ite. The estimated sound exposure level (SEL) of the source was 148.2 dB re 1 ?Pa2s and the median SEL ranged from 120 to 99 dB re 1 ?Pa2s at distances between 394 and 2288 m, respectively. Behavioural thresholds for indigenous species of marine mammals in the Wadden Sea as well as representative fish species were used to determine effect radii of vibration embedment noise. Our study showed that the detected anchor pipe vibration embedment noise might exert a behavioural reaction on a local scale. Marine mammals could be affected by the construction operations up to a distance of 375 m and fish up to a distance of 766 m. These zones of responsiveness for vibration embedment operations are relatively small, compared to pile driving, which is regularly used during construction operations. Our study shows that it is important to monitor and assess any kind of noise introduction to verify, whether a sustainable human use with respect to the complied guidelines is ensured withou!
 t affecting the marine fauna. That is the first step to maintain a good environmental status as implemented in the MSFD.



With kind regards
Tobias Schaffeld


--
Tobias Schaffeld
Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research (ITAW)
University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation
Werftstr. 6 / 25761 B?sum / Germany
Tel  +49 511 856 8164 / Fax +49 511 856-8181
Tobias.Schaffeld at tiho-hannover.de<mailto:Tobias.Schaffeld at tiho-hannover.de>
http://www.tiho-hannover.de/kliniken-institute/institute/institut-fuer-terrestrische-und-aquatische-wildtierforschung/


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Message: 6
Date: Tue, 2 Jun 2020 14:51:09 +0000
From: Bill Keener <keenerb at tmmc.org>
To: "marmam at lists.uvic.ca" <marmam at lists.uvic.ca>
Subject: [MARMAM] Request for information on harbor porpoise behavior
Message-ID:
        <BYAPR02MB49986893B69F255485427377C98B0 at BYAPR02MB4998.namprd02.prod.outlook.com>

Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"

Dear MARMAM community,



We are working on an international collaborative paper documenting harbor porpoise mating patterns globally. If you or your colleagues have photos, videos or other data on harbor porpoise aerial behavior or mating, please reach out us.



Our goal is to document whether the conspicuous behavior that we described from San Francisco Bay in our 2018 paper (the male's rapid approach to the female's left side that often ends with the male becoming aerial) occurs in all harbor porpoise populations. Our results have shown that porpoise aerial behavior may be a sign of mating activity, and such observations could factor into decisions affecting potential breeding hotspots and the designation of marine protected areas.



Our open access paper in Aquatic Mammals (https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.44.6.2018.620)

is available here: 44_6_keener<https://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/index.php?option=com_hikashop&ctrl=product&task=download&file_id=915>. At the World Marine Mammal Conference in Barcelona, we presented a poster inviting collaborators, available here: https://www.marinemammalcenter.org/assets/pdfs/vetsci-stranding/scientific-contributions/2019/Webber_et_al_2019_Porpoise_mating_behavior_WMMC_Poster.pdf



All the best,



Bill Keener (The Marine Mammal Center; keenerb at tmmc.org)

Marc Webber (The Marine Mammal Center; webberm at tmmc.org)

Dara Orbach (Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi; dara.orbach at tamucc.edu)



Bill Keener

Research Associate

Cetacean Field Research Program

KeenerB at tmmc.org<http://www.marinemammalcenter.org/> | C: 415.297.6139 | MarineMammalCenter.org<http://www.marinemammalcenter.org/>

The Marine Mammal Center, 2000 Bunker Road, Sausalito, CA 94965
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