[MARMAM] New publication on swim encounters with Norwegian killer whales (Orcinus orca)

Chantal Denise Pagel chantaldenisepagel at googlemail.com
Wed Jan 11 05:19:40 PST 2017

Dear MARMAM community,

my co-authors and I are pleased to announce that the following paper has
been published online:

*Swim encounters with killer whales (Orcinus orca) off Northern Norway:
interactive behaviours directed towards human divers and snorkellers
obtained from opportunistic underwater video recordings*
Chantal D. Pagel, Michael Scheer and Michael Lück
Journal of Ecotourism 2016; DOI: 10.1080

Encounters of humans with wild animals should be investigated before
commercial operations will be established. This study describes interactive
behaviours of wild and unhabituated Norwegian killer whales (*Orcinus orca*)
during close encounters with video-filming human divers and snorkellers.
Swimmers followed a code-of-conduct to minimise disturbance. Interactive
behaviours initiated by cetaceans and shown in close proximity to human
swimmers can be described using an ethogram. Such a behavioural catalogue
provides baseline data for managing in-water encounters. This study uses
opportunistic underwater video recordings. Videos were scanned for
interactive behaviours and their relative occurrence was measured. In
total, eight interactive behaviours were found that are considered to be
exclusively affiliative in nature. The most frequent behaviours were
‘calling’ [*M* = 0.74] and ‘eye contact’ [*M* = 0.67]. No aggressive
behaviours were found. The present results facilitate the first description
of interspecific killer whale behaviours occurring during in-water
encounters with snorkellers and divers which is essential to manage
interactions properly in the future.

If you have further questions or would like to receive a copy of the PDF,
please do not hesitate to get in touch: chantaldenisepagel at gmail.com

Kind regards,

Chantal D. Pagel

*Chantal Denise Pagel*
Conservation Biologist(M.Sc./M.I.N.C.)

Georg-August-University, Goettingen, Germany
Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
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