[MARMAM] New publication: Use of boto and tucuxi for bait

Veronica Iriarte verorcinus at gmail.com
Tue Apr 1 09:57:34 PDT 2014

                               I am pleased to announce the following

Iriarte, V. & Marmontel, M. (2013). Insights on the use of dolphins (boto,*
Inia geoffrensis* and tucuxi, *Sotalia fluviatilis*) for bait in the
piracatinga (*Calophysus macropterus*) fishery in the western Brazilian
Amazon. J. Cet. Res. Manage. 13(2):163-173.

ABSTRACT: In the Amazon Basin the use of the pink dolphin or boto (*Inia
geoffrensis*) for bait in the piracatinga (*Calophysus macropterus*)
fishery was first detected in the year 2000. Since then, this artisanal
fishery has become more prevalent as it requires only a few hours of work
per night and provides immediate cash earnings. It is thus an attractive
addition to (or replacement for) traditional fishing. Previous reports have
noted the use of botos as bait, but stated that the most common bait used
are caimans (*Melanosuchus niger*, *Caiman crocodilus*). Estimates of the
number of dolphins killed based on fish landings have been proposed and an
apparent decrease in sighting/survival of an artificially-marked boto
population was observed. Although stocks/population estimates, trends, and
actual numbers of hunted dolphins are unknown, the conservation impacts of
this activity are of concern. Between October 2010 and November 2011,
research was conducted within an area with serious conflicts between
dolphins and fishermen as well as intense fishing for piracatinga, i.e. in
the lower Japurá River, on the border with the Mamirauá and Amanã
Sustainable Development Reserves, where both boto and tucuxi (*Sotalia
fluviatilis*) are used for bait. One-hundred and fifty-seven monitoring
surveys were carried out in eight key communities, confirming 114
piracatinga fishing events through direct monitoring and incognito surveys
of fishing gear (*gaiolas*). Empirical evidence of the activity in
*gaiolas*comprised pieces of bait, carcass remains, piracatinga
provoked vomits and
dolphin fished carcasses. Of those, 31.2% (*n*=35) involved cetacean
bait (91.4%
*I. geoffrensis*, 8.58% *S. fluviatilis*), 68.7% (*n*=77) caiman bait (96% *M.
niger, *4% *C. crocodilus*), and two fishing events used both types. These
percentages may be higher/lower in other areas within and outside the
Reserves. Given the increasing trend of the piracatinga fishery, the
authors believe that precautionary measures for the conservation of
Amazonian dolphins are urgently needed. Development of practical short-term
solutions (e.g. offal-baited fish traps) and multispecies management
together with law enforcement, incentives, and educational programmes could
allow the future transition of riverine communities from the piracatinga
fishery to sustainable, higher income activities.


Pdf copies can be requested to verorcinus at gmail.com



Verónica Iriarte, MSc
Calles 25 y 26
Edif. Club del Mar ss104
CP: 20100
Punta del Este
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