[MARMAM] Aquatic Mammals 37.2 now available online

Kathleen M. Dudzinski kdudzinski at dolphincommunicationproject.org
Mon May 30 09:55:11 PDT 2011

Dear MARMAM and ECS-talk subscribers,
Apologies to those of you who will receive duplicate emails due to  
cross-posting. The following titles represent the contents of the most  
recent issue (Volume 37, issue 2, 2011) of Aquatic Mammals. The online  
issue is now available. For individuals with a print subscription, the  
joint hard copy of 37.1/37.2 will be mailed in early July.
Aquatic Mammals is the longest running peer-reviewed journal dedicated  
to research on aquatic mammals and is published quarterly with  
manuscripts available as published PDFs in real time. Further  
information about the journal can be found at: http://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/
Instructions for authors and formatting guidelines can be found in the  
first volume of each issue and at this link: http://tinyurl.com/AMauthorinstructions
To submit a manuscript for publication consideration, please visit: http://am.expressacademic.org/actions/author.php
If you subscribe to Aquatic Mammals online, you can visit the journal  
web site and sign in to download all articles from this volume: http://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/
Please do not contact the listserve editors for PDFs or copies of the  
articles. To obtain a PDF, please subscribe to Aquatic Mammals http://tinyurl.com/AMsubscribe 
  or contact the corresponding author for reprints.
Please see list below for Volume 37, issue 2 contents
Thank you for your continued interest in the journal and abstract  
With regards,

Kathleen Dudzinski, Ph.D.
Editor, Aquatic Mammals
aquaticmammals at gmail.com

Witteveen, B.H., Worthy, G.A.J., Wynne, K.M., Hirons, A.C., Andrews  
III, A.G., Markel, R.W. 2011. Trophic Levels of North Pacific Humpback  
Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) Through Analysis of Stable Isotopes:  
Implications on Prey and Resource Quality. Aquatic Mammals 37(2),  
101-110, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.101

Trophic levels of 1,105 humpback whales from six geographically and  
isotopically distinct North Pacific feeding groups were calculated  
using δ15N of humpback whales and regional primary consumers. The  
overall mean trophic level for North Pacific humpback whales was 3.6 ±  
0.02, indicating a diet of both fish and zooplankton, and, thus,  
supporting assumptions of humpback whales as generalist predators. The  
highest mean trophic level was calculated for the north Gulf of Alaska  
group (4.0 ± 0.03), while the lowest was found for the Russian and the  
western Aleutian Islands group (3.3 ± 0.08). Differences in mean  
trophic levels suggest that feeding groups differ in the proportion of  
fish and zooplankton in their diets.

Dwyer, S.L., Visser, I.N. 2011. Cookie Cutter Shark (Isistius sp.)  
Bites on Cetaceans, with Particular Reference to Killer Whales (Orca)  
(Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 111-138, DOI 10.1578/AM. 

Forty-nine species of cetaceans have been recorded in the literature  
with cookie cutter shark (Isistius sp.) bites. The first record of a  
cookie cutter shark bite mark on orca (Orcinus orca) was from New  
Zealand waters in 1955. We present 37 unpublished records of cookie  
cutter shark bite marks on orca in tropical to cold waters; a further  
six published records were collated, and additionally 35 individuals  
with bite marks were noted in photo-identification catalogues. A total  
of 120 individuals and 198 bite marks were recorded, with the  
northernmost at 70° 44' N and the southernmost at 77° 14' S. We  
provide the first healing rate of a cookie cutter shark bite mark on  
an orca in New Zealand waters, with a maximum of 150 d between open  
wound and healed scar. Longevity of scars is considered, with one  
particular bite mark still visible as a dark grey oval/elliptic mark  
1,158 d post photographing the open wound. Open cookie cutter shark  
bite marks were not observed on orca photo-graphed in Antarctic  
waters, despite the majority of bite marks being recorded on Antarctic  
orca. This suggests a high level of movement outside the Antarctic  
cold water regions as the known distribution of cookie cutter sharks  
is in warm temperate to tropical waters. Supporting evidence for these  
movements is given by records of Antarctic orca in New Zealand waters  
with open cookie cutter shark bite marks.

Holst, M., Greene Jr., C.R., Richardson, W.J., McDonald, T.L., Bay,  
K., Schwartz, S.J., Smith, G. 2011. Responses of Pinnipeds to Navy  
Missile Launches at San Nicolas Island, California. Aquatic Mammals  
37(2), 139-150, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.139

To document the responses of pinnipeds to launches of missiles and  
similar aerial vehicles, three species of pinnipeds were observed  
during 77 launches from Navy-owned San Nicolas Island off California  
from August 2001 to October 2008. Pinniped behavior and flight sounds  
during each launch were recorded by unattended video cameras and  
acoustic recorders set up around the island’s periphery, usually in  
pairs, as vehicles flew over or near haul-out sites. Multiple logistic  
regression was used to assess dependence of pinniped responses on  
received sound, distance from flight path, type of vehicle, and  
natural factors. The majority of observed California sea lions  
(Zalophus californianus) startled and showed increased vigilance up to  
2 min after each launch; responses often included movement on the  
beach or into the water and were significantly related to received  
sound level and distance from the vehicle’s closest point of  
approach. Most observed northern elephant seals (Mirounga  
angustirostris) showed little reaction to launches and merely raised  
their heads briefly. Nonetheless, their responses were also related to  
received sound level and distance from vehicle trajectory. The harbor  
seal (Phoca vitulina) was the most responsive species. During the  
majority of launches, most (average 68%; range 7 to 100%) observed  
harbor seals within ~4 km of the launch trajectory left their haul-out  
site by entering the water; harbor seals hauled out again at the same  
site several hours after a launch. Within the range of conditions  
studied, there was no clear correlation between harbor seal response  
and received sound level or distance from the closest point of  
approach of the vehicle. Despite these short-term behavioral  
reactions, the effects of launch operations are likely to have been  
minor and localized, with no consequences for local pinniped  
populations as pinniped population sizes on San Nicolas Island are  
stable or increasing.

Leeney, R.H., Carslake, D., Elwen, S.H. 2011. Using Static Acoustic  
Monitoring to Describe Echolocation Behaviour of Heaviside’s Dolphins  
(Cephalorhynchus heavisidii) in Namibia. Aquatic Mammals 37(2),  
151-160, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.151

Static acoustic monitoring is a cost-effective, low-effort means of  
gathering large datasets on echolocation click characteristics and  
habi tat use by odontocetes. Heaviside’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus  
heavisidii) were monitored using an acoustic monitoring unit, the T- 
POD, in July 2008 at a site of known high abundance for this species  
in Walvis Bay, Namibia. The T-POD successfully detected clicks from  
Heaviside’s dol phins, and these clicks were detected in the 120 to  
140 kHz frequency range. A distinct diel pattern to the hourly mean  
inter-click interval was observed, with higher values during daylight  
hours than at night, suggesting that click trains are produced at  
faster rates at night time. There was no apparent diel pattern in the  
proportion of buzz trains produced, however. A diel pattern in click  
activity was observed, with many more detection-positive minutes per  
hour recorded between dusk and dawn, and vocalization activity  
dropping to low levels in the middle of the day. This corresponded  
with visual observations made on abundance of dolphins in the study  
area. These results suggest that Heaviside’s dolphins use this site  
primarily during the night. Static acoustic monitoring proved to be an  
effective technique for monitoring patterns of habitat use by  
Heaviside’s dolphins.

Dennison, S.R., Boor, M., Fauquier, D., Van Bonn, W., Greig, D.J.,  
Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Foramen Ovale and Ductus Arteriosus Patency in  
Neonatal Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Pups in Rehabilitation. Aquatic  
Mammals 37(2), 161-166, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.161

Twenty neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups in rehabilitation  
following maternal separation underwent serial echocardiographic  
studies to assess patency and subsequent age of functional closure of  
the ductus arteriosus (d.a.). B-mode, color-flow Doppler, and pulse  
and continuous wave Doppler were utilized to identify the d.a. and  
determine patency and directionality of blood flow. Seals were also  
evaluated for evidence of foramen ovale (f.o.) patency. B-mode  
ultrasound was used to evaluate the inter-atrial septum for abnormal  
(aneurismal) motion, a sign of f.o. patency in other species. In one  
harbor seal, this motion was confirmed as being consistent with f.o.  
patency by contrast echocardiography. Closure of the f.o. was not  
confirmed in any harbor seal prior to release back into the free- 
ranging population. Data acquired indicate that there is patency of  
the f.o. and d.a. after birth for a longer period in phocids than in  
described terrestrial mammals. The f.o. may be patent up to 7 wks of  
age, and the d.a. may be patent up to 6 wks of age without evidence of  
clinical consequence. This difference in ontogeny between terrestrial  
mammals and harbor seals is presumptively a diving adaptation. Such an  
adaptation is counterintuitive given that humans with f.o. patency are  
at increased risk of stroke following the introduction or formation of  
intravascular gas bubbles and suggests that con-current protective  
mechanisms may be present.

Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A., Cendejas-Zarelli, S. 2011. Nocturnal Haul-Out  
Patterns of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) Related to Airborne Noise  
Levels in Bellingham, Washington, USA. Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 167-174.  
DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.167

Given their distribution, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are likely to  
interact with human activities and potentially be disturbed. However,  
it is unclear how human development affects the haul-out behavior of  
harbor seals near urban areas. Because disturbance related to human  
development may increase noise levels in air, one might expect seals  
to haul-out at times when airborne noise levels are low. This study  
examined the number of harbor seals hauled-out relative to time of  
day, noise levels in air, and tide level at two haul-out sites in the  
city of Bellingham, Washington, USA. Harbor seals were observed from  
May 2008 to April 2009. Two surveys were conducted every 1 to 2 wks— 
one during the day and one at night. Harbor seal counts and in-air  
noise levels were recorded approximately 100 m from each haul-out site  
with binoculars and a sound level meter, respectively. Given the  
strong correlation between time of day and noise levels, one set of  
linear mixed effects models examined the interactive influence of time  
of day and tide level on harbor seal numbers. Another set of models  
examined the effect of noise level and tide level on harbor seal  
numbers. Despite fluctuations in harbor seal num bers in relation to  
time of year and haul-out site, more harbor seals hauled-out during  
the night than during the day. The best model for the number of harbor  
seals hauled-out included an interaction between time of day and tide  
level, and an interac tion between noise level and tide level. This  
study indicated that numbers of harbor seals hauling-out in Bellingham  
were correlated with time of day and in-air noise levels. However, it  
is unclear if the nocturnal haul-out behavior of harbor seals was a  
consequence of human development. It is still possible that an unknown  
factor associated with time of day was responsible for the observed  
results. To tease out the correlation between time of day and in-air  
noise levels, a future comparative study between nearby haul-out sites 
—one close to human activities and one away from them—is  

Noke Durden, W., Stolen, E.D., Stolen, M.K. 2011. Abundance,  
Distribution, and Group Composition of Indian River Lagoon Bottlenose  
Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 175-186, DOI  

Information on the abundance and distribution of cetaceans is  
essential to management and conservation and necessary to assess  
mortality trends and anthropogenic impacts for stock assessment. Line- 
transect aerial surveys (n = 45) were conducted to assess bottlenose  
dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance, distribution, and group  
composition in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL) estuary system, Florida,  
from 2002 to 2004. Calves composed 9.41% of all known age class  
animals sighted. Multiple covariate distance sampling was used to  
estimate abundance. Abundance estimates varied seasonally, ranging  
between 362 (95% CI = 192 to 622; summer 2003) and 1,316 dolphins (95%  
CI = 795 to 2,061; winter 2002-2003), with a mean abundance of 662  
dolphins (95% CI = 544 to 842). Abundance estimates for the Mosquito  
Lagoon sub-basin exhibited the greatest seasonal variability. Seasonal  
differences in abundance within strata suggest seasonal movement  
patterns. This study provides the first abundance estimate for IRL  
dolphins in over 30 y. Further studies that investigate evidence of  
influx/efflux are needed to better under-stand the population biology  
of IRL dolphins.

Short Notes

Balmer, B.C., Wells, R.S., Schwacke, L.H., Rowles, T.K., Hunter, C.,  
Zolman, E.S., Townsend, F.I., Danielson, B., Westgate, A.J., McLellan,  
W.A., Pabst, D.A. 2011. Evaluation of a Single-Pin, Satellite-Linked  
Transmitter Deployed on Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Along  
the Coast of Georgia, USA. Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 187-192, DOI 10.1578/ 

von Streit, C., Udo Ganslosser, U., von Fersen, L. 2011. Ethogram of  
Two Captive Mother-Calf Dyads of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops  
truncatus): Comparison with Field Ethograms. Aquatic Mammals 37(2),  
193-197, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.193

Haelters, J., Everaarts, E. 2011. Two Cases of Physical Interaction  
Between White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and  
Juvenile Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the Southern North  
Sea. Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 198-201, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.198

Silveira, L., Furtado, M.M., Rosas, F.C.W., Silva, L.C.L.C., Cabral,  
M.M.M, Tôrres, N.M., Sollmann, R., Kouba, A., Jácomo, A.T.A. 2011.  
Tagging Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) (Carnivora, Mustelidae)  
for Radio-Telemetry Studies. Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 208-212, DOI  

Piwetz, S., Heidi R. Whitehead, H.R., Godlove, L.R., Cowan, D.F. 2011.  
An Underwater Recording Stethoscope Based on an Omnidirectional  
Hydrophone for Use in Dolphin Rehabilitation and Diagnosis. Aquatic  
Mammals 37(2), 202-204, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.20

McCafferty, D.J., Parsons, E.C.M. 2011. Marine Mammal Ecotypes:  
Implications for Otter Conservation and Management. Aquatic Mammals  
37(2), 205-207, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.205

Historical Perspectives Essay
Defran, R.H. 2011. Historical Perspectives. Aquatic Mammals 37(2),  
213-221, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.213

Book Review

ELECTRONIC DEVICES. Editors: J. L. Nielsen, H. Arrizabalaga, N.  
Fragoso, A. Hobday, M. Lutcavage, & J. Sibert. (Springer Dordrecht  
Heidelberg London New York, 2009. ISBN 978-1-4020-9639-6, 452 pp.)  
Aquatic Mammals 37(2), 222-224, DOI 10.1578/AM.37.2.2011.222

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