[MARMAM] Aquatic Mammals 36.4 no available online

Kathleen M. Dudzinski kdudzinski at dolphincommunicationproject.org
Mon Nov 29 11:55:32 PST 2010


Dear MARMAM subscribers,

The following are abstracts from the most recent issue (Volume 36,  
issue 4, 2010) of Aquatic Mammals.
Aquatic Mammals is the longest running peer-reviewed journal dedicated  
to research on aquatic mammals and is published quarterly with  
manuscripts available as published PDFs in real time. Further  
information about the journal can be found at: http://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/
Instructions for authors and formatting guidelines can be found in the  
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To submit a manuscript for publication consideration, please visit: http://am.expressacademic.org/actions/author.php
If you subscribe to Aquatic Mammals online, you can visit the  
journal's website to download all articles from this volume: http://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/
Please do not contact the listserve editors for PDFs or copies of the  
articles. To obtain a PDF, please subscribe to Aquatic Mammals http://tinyurl.com/AMsubscribe 
  or contact the corresponding author for reprints.
Thank you for your continued interest in the journal and abstract  
postings.
With regards,

Kathleen Dudzinski, Ph.D.
Editor, Aquatic Mammals
aquaticmammals at gmail.com

H. S. Harris, S. C. Oates, M. M. Staedler, M. T. Tinker, D. A. Jessup,  
J. T. Harvey, & M. A. Miller (2010). Lesions and Behavior Associated  
with Forced Copulation of Juvenile Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca  
vitulina richardsi) by Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).  
Aquatic Mammals 36(4): 331-341


Nineteen occurrences of interspecific sexual behavior between male  
southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and juvenile Pacific  
harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) were reported in Monterey Bay,  
California, between 2000 and 2002. At least three different male sea  
otters were observed harassing, dragging, guarding, and copulating  
with harbor seals for up to 7 d postmortem. Carcasses of 15 juvenile  
harbor seals were recovered, and seven were necropsied in detail by a  
veterinary pathologist. Necropsy findings from two female sea otters  
that were recovered dead from male sea otters exhibiting similar  
behavior are also presented to facilitate a comparison of lesions. The  
most frequent lesions included superficial skin lacerations;  
hemorrhage around the nose, eyes, flippers, and perineum; and  
traumatic corneal erosions or ulcers. The harbor seals sustained  
severe genital trauma, ranging from vaginal perforation to vagino- 
cervical transection, and colorectal perforations as a result of  
penile penetration. One harbor seal developed severe pneumoperitoneum  
subsequent to vaginal perforation, which was also observed in both  
female sea otters and has been reported as a postcoital lesion in  
humans. This study represents the first description of lesions  
resulting from forced copulation of harbor seals by sea otters and is  
also the first report of pneumoperitoneum secondary to forced  
copulation in a nonhuman animal. Possible explanations for this  
behavior are discussed in the context of sea otter biology and  
population demographics.

S. E. Fire, Z. Wang, M. Berman, G. W. Langlois, S. L. Morton, E.  
Sekula-Wood, & C. R. Benitez-Nelson (2010). Trophic Transfer of the  
Harmful Algal Toxin Domoic Acid as a Cause of Death in a Minke Whale  
(Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Stranding in Southern California. Aquatic  
Mammals 36(4): 342-350

Unusually high concentrations of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) were  
detected in a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) carcass  
recovered during a severe harmful algal bloom (HAB), which occurred in  
southern California in April 2007. Cell fragments of the toxigenic  
diatom Pseudonitzschia australis were observed in whale gastric fluid  
and feces, corresponding to a dominance of Pseudonitzschia spp. in the  
phytoplankton com-munity at the time of stranding. A high abundance of  
otoliths from a prominent DA vector, the northern anchovy (Engraulis  
mordax), were recovered in whale stomach contents, indicating trophic  
transfer of DA via the food web. Whale feces contained 258 μg DA per  
gram sample, exceeding DA concentrations reported for any marine  
mammal. DA intoxication was identified as the cause of mortality of  
this animal, expanding on the limited understanding of the impacts of  
DA-producing HABs on large whales.

O. A. Lee, F. Gelwick, & R. W. Davis (2010). Summer Foraging Tactics  
in Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris): Maintaining Foraging Efficiencies in a  
Stable Population in Alaska. Aquatic Mammals 36(4): 351-364

Foraging specializations in large populations can reduce intraspecific  
competition for food. When individuals do not specialize on particular  
prey species, resource partitioning might occur as different search  
strategies at the sex and age group levels. This study focused on the  
foraging tactics of sea otters in a stable population in Alaska by  
testing cost-minimizing, energy-maximizing, and efficiency-maximizing  
models. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze  
the boat-based behavioral observations of 119 foraging bouts for adult  
males and females, females with pups, and juveniles. Observations were  
conducted during one summer breeding season. A foraging efficiency  
ratio was calculated using the gain variable—estimated mean energy  
values from captured prey—and the cost variables—inter-dive  
distances traveled and dive depths. Foraging efficiency ratios were  
not significantly different between all adults, including females with  
pups. Juveniles had significantly lower foraging efficiency ratios  
related to low mean energy gains and a higher proportion of  
unsuccessful dives. A cost-minimizing strategy was identified in  
females with pups that minimized travel costs and obtained low prey  
energy per dive. Adult males and females without pups used an energy- 
maximizing strategy of high travel costs and high prey energy gains  
per dive. The ability of adult females to change foraging strategies  
with the demands of raising a pup indicate female adult sea otters can  
have flexible foraging strategies while maintaining high foraging  
efficiencies.



H. Frouin, L. Ménard, L. Measures, P. Brousseau, & M. Fournier (2010).  
T Lymphocyte-Proliferative Responses of a Grey Seal (Halichoerus  
grypus) Exposed to Heavy Metals and PCBs in Vitro. Aquatic Mammals  
36(4): 365-371

This study investigated in vitro the effects of methylmercury chloride  
(CH3HgCl), zinc chloride (ZnCl2), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), lead  
acetate (Pb(C2H3O2)2), and PCBs (Aroclor mixtures) on the  
proliferation of T lymphocytes from the thymus, lymph node, and blood  
from one female grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) juvenile. After  
exposure to heavy metals, a dose-response curve was observed with a  
decrease in proliferation of both T lymphocytes from blood and the  
lymph node. Exposure to Aroclor mixtures led to a mostly reduced  
proliferation of thymocytes and T lymphocytes from the lymph node and  
blood. Lymph node cells seem less sensitive to heavy metals than  
peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymph node lymphocytes are more  
sensitive to PCBs than peripheral blood lymphocytes but less than  
thymocytes. These results suggest that the sensitivity of T  
lymphocytes from one grey seal to contaminants may be due to inherent  
tissue/matrix differences in the sensitivity of these cells to  
contaminants; however, an individual response cannot be excluded in  
the present case. That is, samples from a single individual are not  
extrapolated to the species as a whole in this paper but discussed  
relative to exposure response by tissues.


A. Foley, D. McGrath, S. Berrow, & H. Gerritsen (2010). Social  
Structure Within the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)  
Population in the Shannon Estuary, Ireland. Aquatic Mammals 36(4):  
372-381

The Shannon Estuary is home to Ireland’s only known resident  
population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and is  
designated as a candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC) for this  
species. Proper conservation management of these dolphins requires an  
understanding of the social structure of this population. Four years  
of photo-identification data (2005 to 2009, excluding 2007) were used  
to construct sociograms that complement a cluster analysis of  
individually marked dolphins and their associates. The results found  
little evidence of social stability or group fidelity for this  
study’s dolphin population. Analysis of dolphins observed in  
consecutive years showed that the probability of group members  
encountering an individual dolphin in the second year did not depart  
from a random model. The social parameters for this resident  
population seem to be typical for this species. Bottlenose dolphins  
are found to exhibit a highly fluid, dynamic social structure within  
which individuals change their composition and associates regularly.  
These dolphins in the Shannon Estuary appear to live in a fission- 
fusion based society.



Short Notes


S. H. Elwen & R. H. Leeney (2010). Injury and Subsequent Healing of a  
Propeller Strike Injury to a Heaviside’s Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus  
heavisidii). Aquatic Mammals 36(4): 382-387


Historical Perspectives

R. L. Gentry (2010). Marine Mammal Research Then and Now. Aquatic  
Mammals 36(4): 388-399

K. C. Balcomb III (2010). Whales in a Changing World. Aquatic Mammals  
36(4): 400-408


Book Reviews

D. Fertl (2010). The Question of Animal Culture. K. N. Laland & B. G.  
Galef. Aquatic Mammals 36(4): 409


M. Schotten (2010). The Dusky Dolphin: Master Acrobat Off Different  
Shores. B. Würsig & M. Würsig ........410


Obituary and Tributes

William Eugene Evans. (2010). Aquatic Mammals 36(4): 411-419
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