[MARMAM] Aquatic Mammals 36.2 available online

Kathleen M. Dudzinski kdudzinski at dolphincommunicationproject.org
Wed Jun 9 07:30:07 PDT 2010


Dear MARMAM and ECS-talk subscribers,

Apologies to those of you who will receive duplicate emails due to  
cross-posting. The following are abstracts from the most recent issue  
(Volume 36, issue 2, 2010) ofAquatic Mammals.

Aquatic Mammals is the longest running peer-reviewed journal dedicated  
to research on aquatic mammals and is published quarterly with  
manuscripts available as published PDFs in real time. Further  
information about the journal can be found at: http://www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org/

Instructions for authors and formatting guidelines can be found in the  
first volume of each issue and at this link: http://tinyurl.com/AMauthorinstructions

To submit a manuscript for publication consideration, please visit: http://am.expressacademic.org/actions/author.php

If you subscribe to Aquatic Mammals online, you can visit Ingenta  
Connect to download all articles from this volume: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/eaam/am

Please do not contact the listserve editors for PDFs or copies of the  
articles. To obtain a PDF, please subscribe to Aquatic Mammals http://tinyurl.com/AMsubscribe 
  or contact the corresponding author for reprints.

Thank you for your continued interest in the journal and abstract  
postings.

With regards,

Kathleen Dudzinski, Ph.D.
Editor, Aquatic Mammals
aquaticmammals at gmail.com

Aquatic Mammals 36(2) | Contents

T. R. Frasier, P. K. Hamilton, M. W. Brown, S. D. Kraus, & B. N.  
White: Reciprocal Exchange and Subsequent Adoption of Calves by Two  
North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Aquatic Mammals  
2010, 36(2), 115-120, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.115
Baleen whales have among the lowest reproduc tive rates in the animal  
kingdom, coupled with high energetic demands on lactating mothers to  
support the rapid growth of their offspring. Because each offspring  
represents a large portion of a female’s reproductive effort, strong  
selec tion pressure should be in place to minimize the potential for  
misplaced parental effort. However, we describe a case in which two  
North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) offspring were  
switched between mothers and remained with their “adopted” mothers  
throughout their first year of life (until they were weaned). The most  
reason able explanation is that this swap was an accident caused by  
the females calving in close spatial and temporal proximity. The  
calves likely associated with the wrong mothers before any mother-off  
spring recognition system had developed, and an association then  
formed between these non-bio logical mother-offspring pairs. These  
data raise intriguing questions regarding how often this may occur in  
other wildlife populations, what mecha nisms are used for mother- 
offspring recognition in whales, and how long it takes for this  
recognition to develop.

M. H. Deakos, B. K. Branstetter, L. Mazzuca, D. Fertl, & J. R. Mobley,  
Jr.: Two Unusual Interactions Between a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops  
truncatus) and a Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian  
Waters. Aquatic Mammals 2010, 36(2), 121-128, DOI 10.1578/AM. 
36.2.2010.121
When two species share a common habitat, interspecific interactions  
can take many forms. Understanding the dynamics of these interactions  
can provide insight into the behavior and ecology of those species  
involved. Two separate, unusual interactions are described in which a  
humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) lifted a bottle-nose dolphin  
(Tursiops truncatus) completely out of the water. Both incidents  
occurred in Hawaiian waters. Based on reports of object play by hump- 
back whales, and the apparent initiation and coop-eration of each  
dolphin being lifted, object (i.e., the dolphin) play by the whale and  
social play by the dolphin seem to be the most plausibleexplana-tions  
for the interaction. Aggressive and epimeletic behavior by the  
humpback were also considered.

J. N. Womble & S. Conlon: Observations of Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias  
jubatus) Predation on a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) in the  
Glacier Bay Region of Southeastern Alaska. Aquatic Mammals 2010,  
36(2), 129-137, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.129
Pinnipeds prey primarily on fish and invertebrates; however, several  
species are known to prey upon other pinniped species. Herein, we  
document an observation of aSteller sea lion (Eumetopias juba-tus)  
attacking and partially consuming a juvenile harbor seal (Phoca  
vitulina richardii) in Johns Hopkins Inlet in Glacier Bay National  
Park, Alaska. Population trends for Steller sea lions and harbor seals  
contrast dramatically in the Glacier Bay region. Although other marine  
predators are known to attack harbor seals, it is possible that  
Steller sea lions could potentially have both a direct and indi-rect  
influence on harbor seals in the Glacier Bay region.

L. O. Valenzuela, M. Sironi, & V. J. Rowntree: Interannual Variation  
in the Stable Isotope Differences Between Mothers and Their Calves in  
Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis). Aquatic Mammals 2010,  
36(2), 138-147, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.138
Lactation is the most energetically expensive aspect of mammalian  
reproduction. As capital breeders, lactating southern right whales  
(Eubalaena aus-tralis) are completely dependent on their stored  
nutrients. The relative proportion of different endogenous nutrient  
pools used during lacta-tion could be assessed using stable isotopes.  
We determined the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope difference  
between skin samples of 42 southern right whale mothers and their  
calves. The mean δ15N value of calves was 0.51‰ higher than that of  
their mothers, but their δ13C values were identical. However, when  
analyzed by year, the mother-calf pairs showed no isotope differences  
in 2004, but calves had higher δ15N (0.85‰) and δ13C (0.63‰) in  
2003 and 2005. We hypothesize that the inter-annual variability was a  
consequence of different levels of nutritional stress. A decline in  
food abun-dance prior to the nursing seasons could result in mothers  
with relatively poorer physical condition that would not be able to  
meet the high energetic demands of their offspring. Thus, the calves  
would be forced to utilize proteins as well as lipids to meet this  
demand, increasing their nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios. This  
hypothesis is supported by an independent assessment of the proportion  
of stranded whales over the same time period.

A. Alvarez-Alemán, C. A. Beck, & J. A. Powell: First Report of a  
Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba. Aquatic  
Mammals 2010, 36(2), 148-153, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.148
Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake  
and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory  
habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known  
Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee  
between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two  
manatees (mother and calf) were reported enter ing a power plant canal  
in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive  
scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a  
previously known Florida mana tee (CR131) with a sighting history  
dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals  
between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications,  
particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between  
the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean  
manatee subspecies (T. m. mana tus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican  
Republic.

H. Yoshida, J. Compton, S. Punnett, T. Lovell, K. Draper, G. Franklin,  
N. Norris, P. Phillip, R. Wilkins, & H. Kato: Cetacean Sightings in  
the Eastern Caribbean and Adjacent Waters, Spring 2004. Aquatic  
Mammals 2010, 36(2), 154-161, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.154
A cetacean line-transect survey was conducted in the eastern Caribbean  
Sea and the adjacent southwestern North Atlantic Ocean from 17 April  
to 14 May 2004 to obtain information on ceta-cean distribution and  
density. The survey area was divided into coastal and offshore blocks;  
the coastal blocks contained the insular continen-tal shelf. A total  
of 2,273 nmi (4,210 km) was searched (1,528 nmi [2,830 km] in coastal  
blocks and 745 nmi [1,380 km] in offshore blocks) with 76 cetacean  
sightings (64 and 12 for the coastal and offshore blocks,  
respectively). Twelve species were identified (number of individuals/ 
groups observed in coastal blocks-offshore blocks): 4/4(2/2)Bryde’s  
whale (Balaenoptera edeni), 7/5(2/1) humpback whale (Megaptera  
novaeangliae), 5/5(0/0) sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus),  
32/3(0/0) short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus),  
132/4(0/0) melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), 1/1(0/0)  
Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus), 42/6(0/0) bottlenose dolphin  
(Tursiops truncatus), 30/1(0/0) Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodelphis  
hosei), 505/9(33/3) pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata),  
35/1(35/1) Atlantic spotted dolphin (S. frontalis), 35/1(0/0) spinner  
dolphin (S. longirostris), and 90/1(0/0) striped dolphin (S.  
coeruleoalba). Additionally, 28 groups were sighted for which the  
species could not be identified: 5/5(2/2) large whales, 11/5(0/0)  
Mesoplodon spp., 1/1(0/0) ziphiid whale, 5/1(0/0) Stenella spp., and  
39/11(10/3) dolphins. Due to the low number of sightings on account of  
the poor sighting conditions during the survey, abun dance of  
cetaceans could not be estimated.

R. S. Amaral: Use of Alternative Matrices to Monitor Steroid Hormones  
in Aquatic Mammals: A Review. Aquatic Mammals 2010, 36(2), 162-171,  
DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.162
The measurement of steroid hormones (e.g., andro gens, estrogens,  
progestins, and glucocorticoids) in alternative matrices (e.g., feces,  
urine, blubber, saliva, blow, milk, and ocular secretion) has been  
increasingly used in research with aquatic mam mals. The aim of this  
review is to briefly summa rize studies using steroid analysis in  
alternative matrices from captive and free-ranging aquatic mammal  
species. The analysis of steroid hor mones from alternative matrices  
is a powerful tool to obtain information about reproductive biology  
and social behavior in free-ranging aquatic mam mals, as well as to  
help in the management of cap tive animals. However, for a consistent  
monitoring of steroid hormones in alternative matrices, it is of  
crucial importance to verify if a chosen matrix and assay reliably  
reflects physiologic events.

A. Yatabe, N. Kubo, M. Otsuka, S. Shima, T. Kubodera, & T. K. Yamada:  
Stomach Contents and Structure of a Longman’s Beaked Whale  
(Indopacetus pacificus) Stranded in Kyushu, Japan. Aquatic Mammals  
2010, 36(2), 172-177, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.172
The stomach contents from a female Longman’s beaked whale  
(Indopacetus pacificus), which stranded on the coast of Kagoshima  
Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan, were examined. This is the first specimen  
of this species from Japan and also its northern-most record. The  
remains collected from the stomach consisted of numerous cephalopod  
beaks and lenses and a large number of uniden-tified nematodes. Ninety- 
nine upper beaks and 69 lower beaks from squid species were col-lected  
from the stomach. The lower beaks were used to identify squid prey  
species; five species were identified: Taonius pavo, Onykia  
loennbergi, Onychoteuthis borealijaponica,Chiroteuthis pic-teti, and  
Histioteuthis inermis. Taonius pavo was the most common species and  
accounted for 84% of the total beaks. Distribution data for these  
squid species suggest that this whale fed in the epipe-lagic to  
mesopelagic zones in the western North Pacific off the southern part  
of Japan. Stomach morphology was also examined. The presence of a main  
stomach with three connecting cham-bers and one pyloric stomach  
compartment was confirmed. It appears that the morphology of this  
species’ stomach is similar to that found in Tasmacetus and Ziphius.  
This is the first report on the food habits, stomach anatomy, and  
parasites of Longman’s beaked whale and contributes to a better  
understanding of their biology.

M. Kretzmann, L. Rohrbach, K. Durham, R. DiGiovanni, Jr., & S. Sañudo- 
Wilhelmy: Trace Metal Burdens in Stranded Seals from Long Island, New  
York: Potential Evidence for Species Differences in Foraging. Aquatic  
Mammals 2010, 36(2), 178-187, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.178
Toxic (e.g., Hg, Ag, Cd, and Pb) and essential (e.g., Se, Cu, and Fe)  
trace element levels were determined in liver samples from four seal  
species (harp seal [Phocagroenlandica], n = 35; hooded seal  
[Cystophora cristata], n = 7; harbor seal [Phoca vitulina], n = 34;  
gray seal [Halichoerus grypus], n = 10) stranding in Long Island  
waters between 1988 and 2004 to examine temporal and species-specific  
patterns in these top marine car-nivores. There was no obvious trend  
in trace metal burdens in seal livers over this time period. Harp and  
hooded seals are arctic species that have only appeared in Long Island  
waters in recent years. Their diets are believed to include more  
inverte-brate prey, and this was reflected in significantly higher  
cadmium (Cd) concentrations (mean = 5.5 to 6.3 μg g-1 dry weight vs.  
0.5 to 1.4 μg g-1 for harbor and gray seals, p = 0.007). The highest  
mercury (Hg) burdens (> 100 μg g-1 dry weight) were seen in seven of  
the eight adult harbor seals and the only adult gray seal; four of  
five adult harp seals did not show elevated levels. This suggests that  
migratory harp seals are feeding on prey with a lower Hg burden  
compared to resident harbor seals that forage in the coastal  
environment. Copper (Cu) levels were high (70 to 105 μg g-1) in a few  
juvenile harbor seals as predicted based on Cu-incorporating enzymes  
essential for growth. A few elevated silver (Ag) values (1.5 to 3.0 μg  
g-1) were seen in the same adult harbor seals with high Hg burdens.  
These values may not reflect metal burdens in healthy populations as  
our samples were obtained from stranded animals, but there was no  
evidence that any of these seals died as a result of metal toxicity.

G. Ceballos, S. Pompa, E. Espinoza, & A. García: Extralimital  
Distribution of Galapagos (Zalophus wollebaeki) and Northern  
(Eumetopias jubatus) Sea Lions in Mexico.Aquatic Mammals 2010, 36(2),  
188-194, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.188
Global pinniped distribution is greatly determined by changes in sea  
surface temperature. El Niño events also have been reported to  
directly influence pinniped distribution. These events have increased  
in frequency and intensity changing the foraging ecology of the two  
pinniped species analyzed. In this paper, we present new  
extralimitalrecords of distribution of two species rarely found in  
Mexican waters: the Galapagos (Zalophus wolle‑baeki) and the Northern  
(Eumetopias jubatus) sea lions. Three adultZ. wollebaeki were found in  
Chiapas, and one E. jubatus was recorded off the coasts of Colima— 
both exceeding the maximum reported extralimital distance. These new  
records increase the number of marine mammal species recorded in  
Mexico and add evidence to the fact that large-scale climatic  
variation and possible effects of global warming shift the  
distribution of marine mammals.

I. N. Visser, J. Zaeschmar, J. Halliday, A. Abraham, P. Ball, R.  
Bradley, S. Daly, T. Hatwell, T. Johnson, W. Johnson, L. Kay, T.  
Maessen, V. McKay, T. Peters, N. Turner, B. Umuroa, & D. S. Pace:  
First Record of Predation on False Killer Whales (Pseudorca  
crassidens) by Killer Whales (Orcinus orca). Aquatic Mammals  
2010,36(2), 195-204, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.195
The first record of killer whale (Orcinus orca) pre-dation on false  
killer whales (Pseudorca crassi-dens) is reported here. On 25 March  
2010, a group of 50 to 60 false killer whales, including approxi- 
mately 15 calves and accompanied by three to five bottlenose dolphins  
(Tursiops sp.), were sighted in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.  
Within 30 min, they were approached by a group of approximately eight  
killer whales. Five false killer whales were attacked, with at least  
three rammed from below, forcing them out of the water. After 29 min,  
the killer whales were milling at the surface and feed-ing on the  
carcass of a false killer whale calf, pos-sibly the only individual  
killed. The killer whales had prolific fresh and healed oval wounds,  
which were attributed to cookie cutter shark (Isistius sp.) bites.

Historical Perspectives
W. W. L. Au: A Short Biography

Book Review
F. Ritter: The Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine  
Environments. Editor: Michael Lück. CABI Publishing, Nosworthy Way  
Wallingford, OxfordshireOX10 8DE UK, 2008. ISBN 9781845933500, 590 pp.  
Aquatic Mammals 2010, 36(2), 203, DOI 10.1578/AM.36.2.2010.



Kathleen M. Dudzinski, Ph.D.
Editor, Aquatic Mammals Journal
Director, Dolphin Communication Project

kathleen at dcpmail.org
aquaticmammals at gmail.com

www.dolphincommunicationproject.org

www.aquaticmammalsjournal.org
to submit a manuscript, visit:
Manuscript Fast track web site at
http://am.expressacademic.org/actions/author.php

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