[MARMAM] Abstracts - The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, Vol. 7(1-2), 2009

Dagmar Fertl dagmar_fertl at hotmail.com
Sun Jul 18 18:42:39 PDT 2010

Dear Marmam and ECS-mailbase subscribers,

Apologies to those of you who will get duplicate emails due to cross-posting. The following are abstracts from the most recent issue of The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals (LAJAM). LAJAM  is distributed to members of the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Especialistas en Mamíferos Acuaticos/Latin American Society of  Experts on Aquatic Mammals (solamac.org) and the Sociedad Mexicana de Mastozoología Marina/Mexican Society for Marine Mammalogy (www.somemma.org). For more information on subscriptions to LAJAM or manuscript submittals, please go to: solamac.org.
Abstracts are presented as a courtesy to LAJAM's Editor-in-Chief – Dr. Daniel Palacios (Daniel.Palacios at noaa.gov) and Managing Editor – Dr. Salvatore Siciliano (sal at ensp.fiocruz.br). 
LAJAM publishes articles concerning research, management and conservation biology of aquatic mammals in Latin America, regardless of the nationality of the authors. Articles on techniques broadly applicable to the study of aquatic mammals will also be considered regardless of author's nationality.
Contact information is provided for the corresponding author for each article. Please do not contact the listserve editors or me for pdfs or copies of the articles.

Thank you for your continued interest in the journal and these postings. 
With regards,
Dagmar Fertl
dfertl at gmail.com
Franco-Trecu, V.*, P. Costa, C. Abud, C. Dimitriadis, P. Laporta, C. Passadore, and M. Szephegyi. 2009. By-catch of franciscana Pontoporia blainvellei in Uruguayan artisanal gillnet fisheries: an evaluation after a twelve-year gap in data collection. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2): 11-22.
*Corresponding author, e-mail: franciscana at fcien.edu.uy
The franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is the most threatened small cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.  Its incidental capture in the Uruguayan fisheries of the Atlantic oceanic coast (AOC) has been recorded since 1940 and was systematically  studied from 1974 to 1994, providing the most recent by-catch per unit of effort estimate (BPUE) for the AOC region (0.0064 franciscanas per 1000m net per fishing set). The lack of new by-catch data during the past 12 years has led to a data gap in by-catch estimates for the species in Uruguay. The current study was developed in two separate stages, a first stage (July 2004 - December 2005) designed to identify fisheries that interact with franciscana, and a second stage (2006), designed to determine new BPUE and franciscana mortality estimates for the selected fisheries. During the first stage, 13 artisanal fisheries of the Uruguayan coast were visited monthly, while in the second stage five fisheries (including the Rio de la Plata estuary and the AOC) were selected for monitoring. During 2006, 26 fishermen recorded all the information related to each fishing event, allowing the estimation of fishing effort calculated in linear units multiplied by hour (FEL). We also estimated a fishing set (FES) based by-catch rate which allowed the comparison with previously reported results. For 2006, the BPUEL (based on FEL) was estimated at 0.0020 franciscanas per 1000m net per hour and the BPUES at 0.0286 franciscanas per 1000m net per fishing set. The BPUEL was extrapolated to the surveyed fishing fleets during 2006, resulting in a mortality estimate of 289 (95% CI: 266-350) franciscanas. Based on the fishing dynamics reported herein, we consider the BPUEL the most accurate estimate of by-catch for the Uruguayan coast. This research updates the values of BPUE in the AOC after a 12-year information gap and includes the first by-catch evaluation in the Uruguayan estuarine coast. We highly recommend an abundance estimation of the species to complement the information reported herein in order to know the current status of franciscana dolphin population in Uruguay.
Salvadeo, C.J.*, A. Gómez-Gallardo, D. Lluch-Belda, and J. Urbán R. 2009. The odontocete community and its environment in the southwestern Gulf of California. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):23-32. 
*Corresponding author, e-mail: chsalvadeo at yahoo.com.mx
Community structure is a function of the number of species, their relative abundance and the characteristics of the dominant, common and rare species that are part of it. It also can be described by changes in its physical and biological environment. The aim of the present work is to describe the odontocete community, its temporal changes and the relationship with environmental variability and food availability in the southwestern Gulf of California (GC). Information was obtained from 21 sampling trips from September 2003 to March 2006 between La Paz Bay and Loreto, with a sampling effort of 8769.1km. We recorded the presence, location and other biological parameters of odontocete sightings. Data on environmental variability was obtained from satellite images of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentration, and food availability from published reports. A total of 30201 odontocete cetaceans were recorded from 353 sightings, belonging to 10 different species. We observed a temporal lag between the peaks in productivity and an increased presence of odontocete species. The community structure showed a seasonal change in the abundance of the dominant (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus sp.) and common species (Globicephala macrorhynchus and Kogia sp.), as well as by the absence or presence of scarce (Physeter macrocephalus and Orcinus orca) and rare species (Pseudorca crassidens and Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). This seasonal community change is in agreement with the known seasonal movements of its main prey inside the GC, which, in turn, is related to seasonal environmental variation. We observed that the community structure was dominated by fish-eating species during the temperate season and responded to the increased presence and aggregation of sardines (Sardinops sagax caerulea) in the southern GC, whereas the warm season was dominated by squid-eating species and related to the increased presence and aggregation of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the GC’s west coast.
Pacheco, A.S.*, S. Silva, and B. Alcorta. 2009. Winter distribution and group composition of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) off northern Peru. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):33-38.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: babuchapv at yahoo.com
>From late July to the end of September 2009, the temporal and spatial distribution and group composition of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were studied in order to provide new information about the species in northern Peru, the southern limit of the breeding area for the Southeast Pacific population. Daily surveys were made from a whale-watching boat from Los Organos (04°10’38.78"S, 81°8’04.40"W) and covering an area of approximately 74km2. Data about geographic position and group composition are presented. A total of 43 trips yielded a total of 124 sightings. Whales were observed throughout the study period with a peak in abundance in late August. Humpbacks were distributed mainly in shallow waters between 20 and 50m depth. Pairs and trios were the most common group type, whereas adults and mother/calf pairs were the principal sex/age classes. Our data confirms breeding and nursing activities in the southern limit of the wintering area for the Southeast Pacific stock. Frequent use of the shallow waters of the northern Peruvian coast by fishing operations may cause negative impacts on this sensitive phase in the humpback’s life cycle. Thus, strengthening the current protection measures is encouraged.
Castelblanco- Martínez, D.N., B. Morales-Vela*, H.A. Hernández-Arana, and J. Padilla-Saldivar. 2009. Diet of the manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Chetumal Bay, Mexico. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):39-46.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: bmorales at ecosur.mx
Manatees, as well as other sirenians, are aquatic, opportunistic herbivores. Knowledge of their diet is important to determine habitat requirements. This is the first study of manatee diet in México. Our main objective was to identify the plant species eaten by manatees in Chetumal Bay, and to establish if diet composition varied by climatic season, sex or age class. We compared plant epidermal fragments found in feces with histological descriptions and permanent collections of suspected plants and algae. Thirty-six fecal samples and nine tract digestive content samples (mouth, stomach, and cecum) were examined. We found eight distinct plant items, including seagrasses, freshwater grasses, algae and vascular plants. Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum were found in 41 samples (92%), and Ruppia sp. was present in 57.8%. Another common item was red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), found in 66.7% of samples. Additionally, we report Chara sp. and Najas sp. as part of the West Indian manatee’s diet outside of Florida. A multivariate analysis based on a presence/absence triangular matrix and a similarity analysis were used to test differences among samples. Season, sex or age class did not influence diet composition. All species identified are present in Chetumal Bay, suggesting that manatees do not move long distances at sea in search of food. We postulate that consumption of red mangrove by Chetumal Bay manatees may occur as compensation for the scarcity of submersed aquatic plants, which has not been reported for other habitats for this species.
Luz Carvalho, V.*, A.C. Oliveira De Meirelles, M.R. Alves Motta, D.C. Branco De Sousa Colares Maia, M.V. Moraes  Campello, and C.M. Leal Bevilaqua. 2009. Occurrence of Pulmonicola cochleotrema (syn. Cochleotrema cochleotrema) (Digenea: Opisthotrematidae) in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):47-52.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: vitorluz at yahoo.com.br
The present work reports the first record of the trematode parasite Pulmonicola cochleotrema in Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil. Out of 15 necropsied manatees in the State of Ceará, the parasite was found in the nares, trachea and bronchi of four animals (two juvenile males, one juvenile female and one adult female), for a prevalence of 26.7%. The parasites were identified based on morphological features observed in the 38 collected specimens. No pathological manifestations were observed associated with the presence of the parasites in the present study. The prevalence observed in the State of Ceará and the lack of reports of this parasite species in other states of northeastern Brazil may suggest the existence of an isolated population, a higher occurrence of the intermediate host, or differences in the feeding habits of the manatees.
Jefferson, T.A.*, P.A. Olson, T.R. Kieckhefer, and L. Rojas-Bracho. 2009. Photo-identification of the vaquita (Phocoena sinus): the world’s most endangered cetacean. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):53-56.
*Corresponding author, e-mail: sclymene at aol.com
 No abstract was provided. This note is about how in the autumn of 2008, a large-scale international effort to study the vaquita and develop methods to monitor its population status was conducted. As part of this effort, the authors investigated the feasibility of getting high quality photos of vaquitas and of using photoidentification methods. From 2-30 October 2008, the authors conducted small-vessel surveys for vaquitas from a shore-based station in San Felipe, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Six individuals were photo-identified. Based on this sample, and considering only those with long-term markings, an estimated 24-31% of adults would be suitable for long-term photo-identification.
Pardo, M.A., A. Mejía-Fajardo, S. Beltrán-Pedreros, F. Trujillo, I. Kerr, and D.M. Palacios*. 2009. Odontocete sightings collected during offshore cruises in the western and southwestern Caribbean Sea. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2): 57-62.
*Corresponding author, e-mail: Daniel.Palacios at noaa.gov
No abstract was provided. This note is about odontocete sightings made during four offshore cruises in Colombian and Panamanian waters spanning the period 1988-2008. Fourteen sightings of six odontocete species were collected during the four cruises: Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata), common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Observations of the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) and the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) are the first for these areas.
Pardo, M.A.*, C. Jiménez-Pinedo, and D.M. Palacios. 2009. The false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) in the southwestern Caribbean: first stranding record in Colombian waters. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):63-67.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: biomario at gmail.com
No abstract was provided. This note documents the first record of a stranding of the false killer whale Pseudorca  crassidens in the Colombian Caribbean, and describes in detail the skull morphology of the specimen. The stranding occurred in June 2001 in the Santuario de Fauna y Flora Los Flamencos (SFFLF), a national natural reserve located 23km southwest of the city of Rioacha, Columbia. With this report, the authors  validate occurrence of the false killer whale in Colombian waters and add the southwestern Caribbean to the confirmed range of this species.
Fraija, N.*, L. Flórez-González, and A. Jáuregui. 2009. Cetacean occurrence in the Santa Maria region, Colombian Caribbean, February-May 2007. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):69-73.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: natalia.fraija at gmail.com
No abstract was provided. This note reports on the cetacean community around Santa Marta in Colombian Caribbean waters. The study was conducted during February and May 2007 from both land-based and boat-based platforms; the article also presents stranding records. Species documented include a stranding of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and sightings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis).
Bolaños-Jiménez, J., D. Fertl, and M. Iñíguez. 2009. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) occurrence in Venezuelan waters, 1982-2008. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):75-79.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: sea_vida at yahoo.es
No abstract was provided. This note documents 18 sighting records of killer whales in Venezuelan waters during April 1992-January 2008. The authors note that little information is available for killer whales in Carribean waters. Possible seasonal occurrence for the species in this region is discussed.
Alava, J.J. and G. Merlen. 2009. Video-documentation of a killer whale (Orcinus orca) predatory attack on a giant manta (Manta birostris) in the Galápagos Islands. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):81-84.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: jalavasa at sfu.ca
No abstract was provided. This note presents the first detailed observations of killer whale predation on a giant manta in Galápagos waters, including still photographs, based on an underwater video recording. The video recording of this event was made on 4 June 2004 by a tourist traveling aboard an ecotourism vessel north of Fenandina and Isabela islands. Also provided is a compilation of reported ray predation events worldwide by killer whales.
Díaz-Aguirre, F.*,  S. Navarrete, C. Salinas, L. Hiriart, V. Castillo, A. Zerega, R. Ritter, and C. Castilla. 2009. First report on the long-term presence of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off central Chile. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):85-87.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: ferna.diaz at uandresbello.edu
No abstract was provided. This note reports on land-based and boat-based observations were conducted from November 2004 to September 2006, December 2006 to March 2007 and August 2007 off central Chile. This study represents the first long-term documentation of this species in the nearshore waters of the V Region of Chile and provides evidence of a previously undocumented population of common bottlenose dolphins inhabiting central Chile. The authors conclude that the long-term presence of this population could be related to the high levels of productivity in the area due to upwelling events off Punta Curaumilla.
De Mello, D.M.D.*, V.M.F. Da Silva, and A.R. Martin, 2009. Hematological values of wild tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) from the central Amazon. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):89-91.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: danielamello at hotmail.com
No abstract was provided. This note reports the first hematological values determined from blood samples taken from two wild adult tucuxis.
Flores, P.A.C.* 2009. Occurrence of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) in Baía Norte, southern Brazil. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):93-95.
*Corresponding author: paulo.flores at icmbio.gov.br, flores.p at terra.com.br
No abstract was provided. In this note, information is presented on distribution, occurrence, group size and composition of franciscanas in Baía Norte, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on six sightings made between 1996 and 2003 during ongoing research on the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  Groups ranged from 3 to 12 individuals in size, which is consistent with the range reported elsewhere for the species. Five of the six sightings (83%) occurred inside the Environmental Protection Area of Anhatomirim (EPAA), a multiple-use, federal marine protected area created in 1992 mainly to ensure protection of the wild resident population of Guiana dolphins.
Santos, M.C. De O.* and E.H. Ditt. 2009. Incidental capture of a spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828), In a shark gillnet off southeastern Brazil. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):97-99.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: sotalia at gmail.com
No abstract was provided. This note describes the incidental capture in January 1993 of at least one spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) in a gillnet set for sharks off the Brazilian southeast coast. The capture occurred in waters deeper than 480m.
Daneri, G.A.* 2009. Two records of male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the Atlantic coast of Uruguay. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):101-102.
*Corresponding author: gdaneri at macn.gov.ar , gadaneri at retina.ar
No abstract was provided. This short communication reports on two sightings of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) at two different localities on the Atlantic coast of Uruguay, from 2003 and 2005. Both specimens were completely moulted subadult males and did not bear any marks or tags. The authors suggest that the two male elephant seals here reported would belong to the Península Valdés breeding colony.
Palacios-Alfaro, J.D. 2009. First record of the dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) in Caribbean waters of Costa Rica. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):103.
Corresponding author; e-mail: dpalacios at fundacionketo.org
No abstract was provided. This short communication reports on the first record of the dwarf sperm whale for Caribbean waters off Costa Rica, based on a sighting supported by photographic documentation. The sighting was of a single individual in June 2006 in waters with a bottom depth of 200m.
Alardo Souto, L.R., L. Muritiba Lemos, T.H.A.S. Violante, and R. Maia-Nogueira. 2009. Record of a neonate dwarf sperm whale, Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded on the coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 7(1-2):105-106.
*Corresponding author, e-mail: lucianoalardo at yahoo.com.br
No abstract was provided. This short communication discusses a February 2005 stranding of a neonate Kogia sima in northeastern Brazil. As a result of their work, the authors suggest that the size range for the species be lowered to 72.5-130cm.

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