[MARMAM] Melon head whales stranding in Cape Verde

Michael Stocker mstocker at msa-design.com
Tue Dec 4 15:55:30 PST 2007


Salvador et. al

I have attached a report by Bob Brownell et. al. that he gave at the
International Whaling Commission meeting a few years ago. There is much
information on the coincidence of  marine mammal strandings and Naval
exercises. The Brownell report summarizes many events around US Naval
operations in Japan and includes some citations.

The most recent large scale melon headed whale event occurred in Hanalei Bay
in July 2004. An evaluation of this event from the US National Marine
Fisheries service can be found here:
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/health/stranding_melonheadedwhales_final_re
port.pdf

Good luck with your work.

Michael Stocker
Ocean Conservation Research
www.OCR.org

Report as follows:

 
SC/56E37              
Mass Strandings of Cuvier’s Beaked Whales in Japan: U.S. Naval Acoustic
Link?

Robert L. Brownell, Jr., Tadasu Yamada, James G. Mead and Anton L. van
Helden

Southwest Fisheries Science Center        National Science Museum
1352 Lighthouse Ave.                              Shinjuju, Tokyo, 
Pacific Grove, California                         Japan
USA

Smithsonian Institution                            Museum of New Zealand Te
Papa Tongarewa
National Museum of Natural History       P. O. Box 467
Washington, DC 20560                            Wellington 
USA                                                          New Zealand


INTRODUCTION

     Cuvier’s beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, are abundant in many parts
of the world and are commonly known from numerous single strandings
throughout much of their range (Backus and Schevill 1961, Gaskin 1968,
Harmer 1927, Mitchell 1968). Taylor et al. (2004) listed 31 mass strandings
(i.e. strandings involving two or more animals) of Cuvier’s beaked whales
that were recorded worldwide between 1914 and 2002. These included both
single species and multispecies mass stranding events. Ten of these
strandings since 1974 were associated with naval maneuvers and three of the
ten strandings were directly correlated with naval operations known to be
using mid-frequency(MF) active tactical sonar (Zimmer 2004, Balcomb and
Claridge 2001).  One stranding occurred at the same time as Low Frequency
Active Sonar (LFAS) and MF testing (Frantzis 1998, NATO-SACLANTCEN 1998) and
a recent mass stranding of this species is associated with seismic testing
(Taylor et al. 2004). All of the mortality events associated with naval
activity occurred during the past 30 years. However, none of the mass
strandings of Z. cavirostris  reported by Taylor et al. (2004) were from
Japan.

    Balcomb and Claridge (2001) reported details of a March 2000
multispecies mass stranding in the Bahamas, an event which included eight Z.
cavirostris. They noted that individual Cuvier’s beaked whales which had
been repeatedly photographically identified in the region were not
re-sighted after the stranding. This observation suggests that the number of
whales killed during naval operations may be significantly higher than the
number of whales that mass strand. 

     Ishikawa (1994) reported 68 Cuvier’s beaked whales that stranded on the
coast of Japan between 1960 and 1993. This paper examines in detail the
Ishikawa (1994) strandings plus additional strandings of Cuvier’s beaked
whales around Japan between 1994 and 2004 and suggests a possible
explanation for the unusual pattern of some of these strandings.

METHODS

     Our definition of a mass stranding of beaked whales is when two or more
animals (excluding female-calf pairs) strand simultaneously in the same
location. This is the normal type of mass stranding observed with sperm
whales (Physeter macrocephalus), pilot whales (Globicephala spp.), false
killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens), etc. Also the “atypical mass
stranding” as noted by Frantzis (1998, 2004) is defined as more than two
whales (including one or more species) that strand approximately
simultaneously but not in the same location. 

     As a control, we sought a comparable island area to that of Japan that
lay within the range of this species in the Pacific Ocean but without
facilities or vessels for major operations and for which there is a good
record of cetacean stranding events. The control area chosen was New
Zealand, a region in which Ziphius is known to occur commonly.

RESULTS 

     Ishikawa (1994) reported 68 Cuvier’s beaked whales that had stranded on
the coast of Japan starting between 1960 and 1993. These records include
eight cases of mass strandings between 1960 and 1990 with a total of 43
individuals. Additional stranding records (National Science Museum, Tokyo)
from Japanese waters yielded another 43 records of Cuvier’s beaked whales
between the late 1950s and May 2004. Combined these data comprise 111
stranded whales including ten mass strandings with a total of 47
individuals. The mass strandings involved between 2 to 13 individuals. In
seven of the ten mass strandings, all individuals were alive at the time of
the stranding. Six of the ten mass strandings with more than two whales each
were considered atypical strandings with whales scattered over a larger
area. All of the mass strandings occurred in either Suruga Bay or Sagami Bay
on the central Pacific coast of Honsu; in contrast the individual strandings
occurred throughout the Japanese Archipelago.

     The only other mass stranding of beaked whales around Japan occurred on
24 July 1987 when four live Baird’s beaked whales, Berardius bairdii,
stranded at Miura, Sagami Bay. One of these whales was returned to the sea
and the others were trucked to Wadaura where they were examined at the Gaibo
Hogei Whaling Station on 26 July. No gross lesions were found in these
whales (RLB and William A. Walker, unpublished data). These whales stranded
eight days after two dead Z. cavirostris (Table 1) were discovered (on 16
July 1987) in Suruga Bay. 

     Only two other possible mass strandings of beaked whales are known from
the Pacific coast of Japan (Ishikawa pers. comm.). These are: (1) two
Mesoplodon densirostris (one dead and one live), probably a female and calf
at Atsumi (near Nagoya) on 29 March 1999, and (2) two dead Mesoplodon sp. on
1 October 1993 at Nemuro, Hokkaido.
 
     We examined 97 records of Cuvier’s beaked whales that stranded around
North and South Islands, New Zealand between 1862 and 2004 (Museum of New
Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington dataset). All of the records were
single strandings except for four pairs. At least two of these pairs appear
to be female/calf pairs. Details on the other two pairs are lacking to
determine the relationship of the whales. No mass strandings of this species
larger than two whales are known from New Zealand waters.

DISCUSSION

     Cuvier’s beaked whales were first reported from Japanese waters when
two whales were taken by fisherman in 1935 (Ogawa 1937a,b). These whales are
known to be abundant in the Pacific coast waters of Japan and were commonly
hunted for food after the end of World War II (Omura et al. 1955). Nishiwaki
(1967) reported without any additional details that: “From 1961 to 1965,
from 3 to 10 individuals were stranded annually on the shores in Sagami Bay
and the Izu Peninsula. The cause of this unusual incident has not been
explained. Ten skeletons of the above individuals are kept in the Whales
Research Institute”. Omura (1972) describes the ten Ziphius noted by
Nishiwaki (1967) but Omura (1972:2) noted that "To my regret the data on the
exact time, place, body length, sex, and other particulars of the animals
are missing, but if I correctly remember most of them had stranded on the
sandy beach of Sagami Bay at different times and not in mass."  

     The ten mass strandings of Ziphius from Sagami Bay and Suruga Bay
reported here each had between 2 and 13 individuals per stranding event. The
mean group size of free-swimming Cuvier’s beaked whales along the Pacific
coast of Japan is 4.7 animals (Toshio Kasuya, per. comm., unpublished data
from July 1984 cruise in Pacific Japanese waters to study the distribution
and behavior of Baird’s beaked whales [see Kasuya 1986 for details of the
cruise]). Therefore, the larger Japanese mass strandings in 1978, 1979 and
1990 reported here may have comprised more than one group of these whales. 

     Between 1948 and 1952, and from 1965 and 1970, 145 individuals of
Ziphius were killed by small-type Japanese whaling operations just outside
the 1,000 m contour that is close to shore around Izu Penisula [to the west
in Suruga Bay and to the east in Sagami Bay] (Omura et al.1955, Nishiwaki
and Oguro 1972). Catches were made in all months in this region except July
during the 1965 to 1970 period. We report here strandings in this region in
July (Table 1) and sightings in July 1984. Therefore, Cuvier’s beaked whales
are considered to be year-round residents off Sagami and Suruga Bays.

     Sagami Bay is west and south of Tokyo Bay to which it is connected by a
narrow opening. Yokosuka, near the mouth of Tokyo Bay, is the command base
for operations of the US Navy’s Pacific Seventh Fleet. Therefore, a large
number of U.S. Navy ships use Yokosuka as their homeport or transit through
Yokosuka while deployed to the western Pacific. U.S. Navy ships may have
tested their tactical mid-range frequency sonars after departing Yokosuka or
conducted sonar operations that coincided with the mass strandings reported
here. Some Japanese Self-Defense Forces vessels with tactical mid-range
sonar systems that have been correlated with beaked whale mass strandings
were obtained by Japan from the US Navy. 

     No mass strandings of three or more animals were found among the 97
Cuvier’s beaked whales reported from New Zealand waters. The New Zealand
navy is based in Auckland but none of the vessels in their fleet has the
type of mid-range frequency sonar used by the U.S. Navy that has been
implicated in beaked whales strandings. [ANTON]

     Frantzis (1998, 2004) reported that only eight mass strandings of
Cuvier’s beaked whales with more than four whales had been reported
worldwide between 1963 and 1996. The number of individuals, location, and
year in each event was: (1) 5, Puerto Rico, 1965 (Erdman 1970); (2) 6,
Galapagos, 1983 (Robinson et al. 1983); (3) 6, Japan, 1979 (Miyazaki 1989);
(4) 10, Japan, 1972 (Miyazaki 1989); (5) 12, Canary Islands, 1885 (Simmonds
and Lopez-Jurado 1991); (6) 15, Italy, 1963 (Tortonese 1963); (7) 19, Canary
Islands, 1989 (Simmonds and Lopez-Jurado 1991), and (8) 12, Greece, 1996
(Frantzis 1998). The oldest of these strandings, from Italy in 1963, is the
first known atypical mass stranding of Cuvier’s beaked whales and this
stranding coincided in time with the introduction and deployment  of
mid-frequency tactical sonars. During the time period (1963 through 1996)
examined by Frantzis (1998) we can add our additional four mass stranding
events with more than four Cuvier’s beaked whales in each stranding to his
eight strandings. As noted above, the ten Cuvier’s beaked whales from Japan
in 1972 was not a mass stranding (see Omura 1972). In addition, since the
review by Frantzis (1998), four more atypical mass strandings of this
species have been recorded (Taylor et al. 2004).

     In its review of the effect of noise on marine mammals, the U.S.
National Research Council (2003) identified a number of specific research
needs and recommended strategies for addressing gaps in our current
understanding of this issue. However, retrospective reviews of existing data
were not one of the NRC recommendations. Based on our review of Cuvier’s
beaked whale mass strandings in Japan, we recommend a more in-depth
retrospective review of the activities of U. S. Naval activities based in
Yokosuka at the time of these strandings. We also recommend a detailed
retrospective review of beaked whale mass strandings in areas around other
US naval bases (i.e. Adak, Alaska [Walker and Hanson 1999]; Roosevelt Roads,
Puerto Rico [Erdman 1970]; and Midway, Hawaii [Galbreath 1963]) as well as
other parts of the world where various naval operations have been using
tactical mid-frequency sonar systems. Finally, we recommend that the area
were Cuvier’s beaked whales were hunted in Pacific coast Japanese waters,
especially around Sagami Bay, be surveyed to assess the current status of
this species in the area.

     Are any of these Japanese mass strandings of Ziphius and the one mass
stranding of Berardius, related to naval operations with acoustical
components in the deep coastal waters off central Japan? The co-occurrence
of the mass strandings and the US Navy activity in this region strongly
suggests such a relationship. The correlation is particularly noteworthy
when contrasted with the lack of mass strandings of Ziphius around the rest
of Japan and around New Zealand (our control area); in both cases, the area
concerned is marked by either no concentration of naval activity, or no use
of tactical mid-frequency sonar.

Table 1. Mass strandings of Cuvier’s beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris, on
the central Pacific coast of Honshu. Data are from Ishikawa (1994).

Date            Number Stranded     Live or Dead      Location
Remarks                   
  3 III   1960             2                        live
Oshima Island, Sagami Bay         

12 III  1963              3                       dead
Chigasaki, Sagami Bay        Total of  
12 III  1963              1                       dead
Hiratsuka, Sagami Bay       8-10 whales 

2   II   1964              1                       dead
Chigasaki, Sagami Bay
2   II   1964              1                       dead
Chigasaki, Sagami Bay

16 III 1967               1                       live
Kanagawa, Sagami Bay
16 III 1967               1                       live
Odawara, Sagami Bay


25  I    1978             5                        live
Atami, Sagami Bay
25  I    1978             2                        live
Atami, Sagami Bay
25  I    1978             1                        live
Atami, Sagami Bay
25  I    1978             1                        live
Atami, Sagami Bay

17  X  1978             4                        live
Shimizu, Suruga Bay     

 7  XI  1979           13                        live
Odawara, Sagami Bay

16 VII 1987            1                        dead               Numazu,
Suruga Bay
16 VII 1987            1                        dead               Shizuoka,
Suruga Bay

21  II   1989            3                        live
Ninomiya, Sagami Bay

  5 IV  1990            1                        live
Shimizu, Suruga Bay
  5 IV  1990            3                        live
Numazu, Suruga Bay
  5 IV  1990            1                        live
Numazu, Suruga Bay
  5 IV  1990            1                        live
Numazu, Suruga Bay  


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

     The NMSF Office of Protected Resources’ Marine Mammal Health and
Stranding Response Program provided funding for RLB to visit Japan to gather
additional details on Japanese Ziphius mass strandings. Toshio Kasuya
provided sighting observations of Ziphius from his July 1984 survey along
the Pacific coast of Japan. Hiroshi Ohizumi, Department of Fisheries, School
of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University, Shimizu, Shizuoka, Japan
provided details of the Kubota 17 October 1978 strandings after interviewing
Professor Kubota. Also thanks to Mary Jacobs-Spaulding who help to organize
the data in our paper. Kenneth C. Balcomb III, Phillip J. Clapham, Katherine
Ralls, and Dave W. Weller made useful comments on a draft of the paper.

Literature Cited 

Backus, R. H. and Schevill, W. E. 1961. The stranding of a Cuvier’s beaked
whales 
     (Ziphius cavirostris) in Rhode Island, USA. Norsk Hvalfangst-tidende
50(5):177-181.

Balcomb, K. C. and Claridge, D. E. 2001. A mass stranding of cetaceans
caused by naval
     sonar in the Bahamas. Bahamas Journal of Science 8(2):2-12.

Erdman, D. S. 1970. Marine mammals from Puerto Rico to Antigua. Journal of 
     Mammalogy 51(3):636-639.

Frantzis, A. 1998. Does acoustic testing strand whales? Nature 392:29.

Frantzis, A. 2004. The first mass stranding that was associated with the use
of active 
     sonar (Kyparissiakos Gulf, Greece, 1996). Pages 14-20, In: Proceedings
of the 
     Workshop on Active Sonar and Cetaceans, P. G. H. Evans and L.A. Miller,
editors, 
     ECS Newsletter no. 42, special issue. 

Galbreath, E. C. 1963. Three beaked whales stranded at Midway Islands,
central Pacific
     Ocean. Journal of Mammalogy 44(3):422-423.

Gaskin, D. E. 1968. The New Zealand Cetacea. Fisheries Research Bulletin New
Series 
     1:1-92.

Harmer, S. F. 1927. Report on Cetacea stranded on the British coasts from
1913 to 1926. 
     British Museum (Natural History) No. 10:1-91 + 7 maps.

Ishikawa, H. 1994. Stranding records from Japanese coasts (1901-1993).
Geiken Sosho
     [Institute Cetacean Research, Tokyo]  4:1- 94 [In Japanese].

Kasuya, T. 1986. Distribution and behavior of Baird’s beaked whales off the
Pacific coast
      of Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute
37:61-83.

Mitchell, E. 1968. Northeast Pacific stranding distribution and seasonality
of Cuvier’s
     beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris. Canadian Journal of Zoology
46:265-279.

Miyazaki, N. 1989. Stranding records of cetaceans on the coast of Japan. IBI
Reports 
     1:21-25. 

National Research Council. 2003. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. The
National 
     Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 193 pp.

NATO-Saclantcen. 1998. Report of the SACLANTCEN Bioacoustic Panel and 
     SACLANTCEN Marine Mammal Environmental Policy and Mitigation Procedures

     Panel, La Spezia, 15-19 June. NATO Saclantcen, La Spezia, Italy.

Nishiwaki, M. 1967. Distribution and migration of marine mammals in the
North Pacific 
     Area. Bulletin of the Ocean Research Institute University of Tokyo
1:1-64.

Nishiwaki, M. and Oguro, N. 1972. Catch of the Cuvier’s beaked whales off
Japan in 
     recent years. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute
24:34-41.

Ogawa, T. 1937a. Studien uber die Zahnwale in Japan. 7. Cogia (continued),
VII. 
     Ziphius. [Plants and Animals] 5:24-34. [In Japanese].

Ogawa, T. 1937b. Studien uber die Zahnwale in Japan. 8. Ziphius (continued),
VIII. 
     Mesoplodon. [Plants and Animals] 5:9-X. [In Japanese].

Omura, H. 1972. An osteological study of the Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius
cavirostris, 
     in the northwest Pacific. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research
Institute 24:1-34.

Omura, H. Fujino, K. and Kimura, S. 1955. Beaked whales Berardius bairdi of
Japan,
     with notes on Ziphius cavirostris. Scientific Reports of the Whales
Research Institute 
     10:89-132. 

Robinson, G., Koster, F. and Villa, J. 1983. Stranding of Cuvier’s beaked
whales on 
     Baltra. Noticias de Galapagos 38:16-17.

Simmonds, M. P. and Lopez-Jurado, L. F. 1991. Whales and the military.
Nature 
     351:448.

Taylor, B., Barlow, J., Pitman, R., Ballance, L., Klinger, T., DeMaster, D.,
Hildebrand, J., 
     Urban, J., Palacios, D. and Mead, J. G. 2004. A call for research to
assess risk of 
     acoustic impact on beaked whale populations. SC/46/E36

Tortonese, E. 1963. Insolita comparsa di cetacei (Ziphius cavirostris G.
Cuv.) nel golfo 
     di Genova. Natura 54:120-122.

Walker, W. A. and Hanson, M. B. 1999. Biological observations on Stejneger’s
beaked 
     whale, Mesoplodon stejnegeri, from strandings on Adak Island, Alaska.
Marine 
     Mammal Science 15:1314-1329.

Zimmer, W. M. X. 2004. Sonar systems and stranding of beaked whales. Pages
8-13, In:
     Proceedings of the Workshop on Active Sonar and Cetaceans, P. G. H.
Evans and L.
     A. Miller, editors, ECS Newsletter no. 42, special issue. 



Footnotes for each of the mass strandings

1. Two Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded on Oshima Island in Sagami Bay
(Nakajima and Kurata 1960). Kurata, Y. [Enoshima Aquarium] seems to be the
person who actually visited the stranding site.  Both whales stranded live.
Kurata estimated the total length by using his hand as a unit.  The
estimated lengths were 10 m for the female and the 8 m for the male.  The
female had a foetus 174 cm long.  The body length of the female is
incorrect. The largest known female is 754 cm (Mead 1984, fide Fraser 1946).
Nakajima and Kurata (1960) also reported that the two whales rushed to shore
straight for a fairly long distance, as if they were chased by something
like killer whales. However, no killer whales were observed in the area of
the strandings.

2. In an appendix of Geiken Tsushin number 146, Nakajima (1963) reported
recent strandings that included four dead strandings of Cuvier’s beaked
whales that he examined at Chigasaki and Hiratsuka in Sagami Bay.  Total
lengths of the three that stranded together were 3.5 m (male) and 6.0 m and
5.5 m (females). The total length of the fourth whale is unknown. Nakajima
(1963) also noted that two more might have stranded at Odawara, Sagami Bay;
1-2 more at Atami, Sagami Bay; and 1-2 more at Ito, Sagami Bay at or about
the same time as the four Cuvier’s beaked whales that stranded on 12 March
1963. Therefore, the total number of Ziphius in this mass stranding could
have been 8 to 10 whales.

3. Two Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded dead at Chigasaki on 2 February 1964
(Nakajima 1995). One was a male, 450 cm that stranded at Yanagishima,
Chigasaki, Sagami Bay and the other one was a female, 610 cm, that stranded
at Nakamae, Chigasaki, Sagami Bay. The female was not pregnant. These two
strandings were not reported by Ishikawa (1994).

4. Nakajima (1995) reported two live strandings of Cuvier’s beaked whales at
Chigasaki, Sagami Bay. The first whale was a 417 cm male that stranded at
10:30 at Ninomiya, Kanagawa, Sagami Bay and the second whale was a 500 cm
female that stranded at 10:45 at Kouzu, Odawara, Sagami Bay. The distance
between Ninomiya and Kouzu is approximately 5 km. These two strandings were
not reported by Ishikawa (1994).

5. Nine Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded live at Atami, Sagami Bay and these
were reported by the Hiyoriyama Aquarium [Sea of Japan] Aquarium and Zoo
database [Newsletter] (Ishikawa 1994). One of the whales from the group of
five [see DO-009 in Ishikawa 1994] was 5.48 m in TL with no sex given. No
details are available for the other eight whales.

6. Four Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded live and were examined by Kitamura
and all total lengths were about 5 m (Ishikawa 1994). Miyazaki (1983)
reported two whales (two females and one male). Miyazaki (1989) reported of
two whales from this event and their sizes were 474 cm female and 475 cm.
Mori (1993) reported four whales all with the same total length, 5 m, citing
Kubota (1981) as his original source of data. Miyazaki (1986) reported two
skulls from females on this date in National Science Museum with total
lengths of 474 cm and 475 cm. The original source of this stranding was
Kubota (1981). Kubota examined two of the four whales. One was a 512 cm male
and the other a 563 cm female. The whales stranded at about 07:30 on 17
October 1978 on the coast of Kuno, southwest of Shimizu port. The other two
whales (one a male and the sex of the other unknown) stranded several km
west of the first two whales. Professor Kubota via Ohizumi, Hiroshi,
provided these details. 

7. Thirteen Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded live at Odawara, Sagami Bay.
Some of the whales were examined by Kitamura, Shoichi of Enoshima Aquarium,
and the total lengths ranged between 3.5 m to 5 m (Ishikawa 1994). Miyazaki
(1983) reported six females? Miyazaki (1986) reported one skull from a
female, no total length, on this date in the National Science Museum.
Miyazaki (1989) reported six females on this date, one of which was 468 cm.

8. Two Cuvier’s beaked whales (male 6.7 m and female 5.38 m) stranded dead
at Numazu, Suruga Bay and Shizuoka, Suruga Bay (Ishikawa 1994). Fujimaki,
Yasutoshi who was working with Nakajima, examined these whales. Miyazaki
(1989) reported a single stranding on this date as a 540 cm female. Mori
(1993) reported two whales with total lengths of 6.7 and 5.4 m and cited
Anon. (1987) as his original sources of data for the strandings. 

9. Three Cuvier’s beaked whales (one was a female 5.8 m in total length)
stranded live at Ninomiya, Sagami Bay (Ishikawa 1994). These whales were
examined by Nakajima, Fugimaki who was also working at Enoshima Aquarium.
Miyazaki (1989) reported one whale 588 cm.

10. Six Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded live at Shimizu and Numazu and were
examined by Nakajima, Fugimaki and a different Yamada [who is working at
Tsukiji Fish Museum] (Ishikawa 1994). The total lengths of these whales
were: 5.5 m male, 3 whales between 5.52 m  and 4.59 m (2 females and one
unknown), 5.5 m female, and 5.54 m male. Mori (1993) reported only five
whales with total lengths of 5.5, 5.5, 5.5, 5.3 and 4.6 m. Anon. (1990)
appears to be the original source of his data.

References to footnotes

Anon. 1987. Geiken Tsushin 371:112.

Anon. 1990. Geiken Tsushin 378:23-24.

Fraser, F. C. 1946. Report on Cetacea stranded on the British coasts from
1933 to 1936.
     British Museum (Natural History) 11:1-41, 6 maps. 

Ishikawa, H. 1994. Stranding records from Japanese coasts (1901-1993).
Geiken Sosho
     [The Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo]  4:1- 94 [In Japanese].

Kubota, T. 1981. Stranding and beaching to the shores of larger animals.
Marine Science
      Museum 11(3):4-6.

Mead, J.G. 1984. Survey of reproductive data for the beaked whales
(Ziphiidae). Reports 
     of the International Whaling Commission Special Issue 6:91-96.

Miyazaki, N. 1983. [cited in Miyazaki 1989 but no reference provided]

Miyazaki, N. 1986. Catalogue of marine mammals specimens. National Science 
     Museum, Tokyo, 151 pp.

Miyazaki, N. 1989. Stranding records of cetaceans on the coast of Japan. IBI
Reports
     [International Marine Biological Research Institute, Kamogawa, Japan]
1:21-25.

Mori, K. 1993. Records of cetaceans stranded and caught along the costs of
Suruga Bay, 
     central Japan 1935-1992. Bulletin Institute Oceanic Research &
Development, Tokai 
     University 14:135-141.

Nakajima, M. 1963. A strayed finless porpoise. Geiken Tsushin 147:193-196.

Nakajima, M. 1995. A study on Cuvier’s beaked whales, Ziphius cavirostris,
stranded on 
     the beaches. Journal of Japanese Association of Zoological Gardens and
Aquaria 
     37(2):49-58.

Nakajima, M. and Kurata, Y. 1960. Cuvier’s beaked whales stranded on Izu
Oshima
     Island. Geiken Tsushin 110:197-201.


Revised 28VI2004//25VII2004 

-----Original Message-----
From: marmam-bounces at lists.uvic.ca [mailto:marmam-bounces at lists.uvic.ca] On
Behalf Of salvadorvet at sapo.pt
Sent: Friday, November 30, 2007 6:12 PM
To: MARMAM at lists.uvic.ca
Subject: [MARMAM] Melon head whales stranding in Cape Verde


I'm a DVM working now in Portugal and I'm collaborating in the rehab of
stranded dolphins in this country.
I was born in Cape Verde, so I'm very aware of problems that are happening
there.
Right now I'm really shocked about a mass stranding of Melon Head Whales at
Boavista Island, on Cape Verde the last November 18th during the night. 265
dolphins came ashore and stranded and died in spite of all the efforts made
by the authorities and civilians. But the weird thing happened after:  
they buried all the dolphins before anyone could collect any organ or blood.
Therefore no necropsy was performed.
On the next day more 6 Melon Head Whales died and the biologist in charge at
that island told to newspapers that when she came to the beach where they
stranded, all the dolphins had been taken by people to be eaten, so she
could not get any sample.
The previous day the US nuclear submarine USS Annapolis (SSN760) departed
from the S.Vicente Island that is one of the ten islands of Cape Verde. This
submarine is there in charge against illegal immigration and drug traffic.
By this time we don't have any explanation from the authorities or from the
US Navy or any effort are in progress to find out the true.
That appear to be too much coincidence and there are many strandings around
the world related to such coincidence. All of us are aware of the bad
consequences of military sonar and cetaceans, specially to "deep divers".
I would like to ask if anybody has information connecting submarine sonar to
cetaceans.
Thank you for your help.
Best regards.
Salvador St.Aubyn Mascarenhas, DVM

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