[MARMAM] Contents/abstracts, Aquatic Mammals, vol. 31, no. 2, 2005 (fwd)

MARMAM Editors marmamed at uvic.ca
Sat Sep 17 07:02:16 PDT 2005


Dear Marmam and ECS-mailbase subscribers,

The following is information on the contents of the most current issue of
_Aquatic Mammals_, publication of the European Association for Aquatic
Mammals (EAAM). This posting is made as a courtesy to the journal editor
(Dr. Jeanette Thomas) and the EAAM.

For information about journal subscriptions and manuscript submissions,
please contact:

Dr. Jeanette Thomas
Editor Aquatic Mammals
Biological Sciences
Western Illinois University-Quad Cities
3561 60th St.
Moline, Illinois  61265 USA

Tel: 309-762-9481 ext 311
Fax: 309-762-6989
E-mail:  J-Thomas at wiu.edu
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Please do not direct reprint requests to the listserve, the journal editor,
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Dagmar Fertl
Geo-Marine, Inc.
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************************************************
Mate, B.*, P. Duley, B. Lagerquist, F. Wenzel, A. Stimpert, and P. Clapham.
2005. Observations of a female North Atlantic right whale (_Eubalaena
glacialis_) in simultaneous copulation with two males: supporting evidence
for sperm competition. _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):157-160. 

*Fisheries and Wildlife, Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, Hatfield
Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, OR 97365, USA

Given the huge size of their testes (approximately 1,000 kg), it has been
hypothesized that North Atlantic right whales (_Eubalaena glacialis_) have a
mating system that is based upon sperm competition. Herein, we report an
observation which provides support for this hypothesis. On 11 August 2000 in
the Bay of Fundy in Canada, a mature female right whale was observed
copulating simultaneously with two mature males. The female made no attempt
to resist copulation. For anatomical reasons, double copulation would be
difficult or impossible in most mammals; however, it is quite feasible in
right whales, and the fact that it actually occurs provides strong support
for the belief that females of this species promote sperm competition as a
mating strategy.
********************************************************
Wiggins, S.M.*, E.M. Oleson, M.A. McDonald, and J.A. Hildebrand. 2005. Blue
whale (_Balaenoptera musculus_) diel call patterns offshore of southern
California. _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):161-168.

*Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego,
9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0205, USA

Diel and seasonal calling patterns for blue whales (_Balaenoptera musculus_)
were observed in coastal waters off southern California using
seafloor-mounted autonomous acoustic recording packages (ARPs). Automated
call counting from spectrogram cross-correlation showed peak seasonal
calling in late summer/early fall. When call counts were organized by daily
time intervals, calling peaks were observed during twilight periods, just
after sunset and before sunrise. Nighttime calling was grater than daytime
calling, but also showed a minimum between the dusk and dawn calling peaks.
These peaks correlate with the vertical migration times of krill, the blue
whales' primary prey. One hypothesis to explain these diel variations is
that blue whale calling and foraging may be mutually exclusive activities.
Fewer calls are produced during the day while prey are aggregated at depth
and foraging is efficient. More calls are produced during the twilight time
periods when prey are vertically migrating and at night when prey are
dispersed near the sea surface and foraging is less efficient.
*************************************************
Mello, I.*, and M. Amundin. 2005. Whistle production pre- and post-partum in
bottlenose dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_) in human care. _Aquatic Mammals_
31(2):169-175.

*Kolmården Djurpark, Research and Education Centre, Kolmarden, Sweden

The bottlenose dolphin (_Tursiops truncatus_) has a highly variable acoustic
repertoire of whistles, clicks, and pulse burst sounds. Whistles are used to
express individuality (signature whistle) and emotional state, and to
initiate and maintain contact within a group. This study investigated the
whistle production type pre- and post-partum of three female bottlenose
dolphins and their calves at the Kolmården Djurpark, Sweden. Gestation lasts
approximately 12 months, and with the approach of delivery, the behaviour of
the female changed in several ways. Observations of the behaviour and sound
production were done for up to seven months prior to birth and for up to the
first 22 months of the calves' lives. The results showed that whistle
production increased significantly for all three females in the seven months
pre-partum, with an accelerating increase in the days prior to birth. The
whistles, therefore, might be used as an indicator that delivery is
imminent. After birth, the mother-calf pair whistled more often when
separated (66%) than when together (34%), and significantly more often when
the calf returned to its mother than when she retrieved the calf.
***************************************************************
Viddi, F.A.*, and A-K Lescrauwaet. 2005. Insights on habitat selection and
behavioural patterns of Peale's dolphins (_Lagenorhynchus australis_) in the
Strait of Magellan, southern Chile

*Instituto de Ecologia y Evolucion, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia,
Chile

During the austral summer/autumn of 2001, habitat selection of Peale's
dolphins (_Lagenorhynchus australis_) was assessed through a five-month
land-based survey in two sectors on the central west coast of the Strait of
Magellan, Punta Arenas, Chile. The main objective of this study was to
evaluate habitat selection of Peale's dolphins in relation to kelp beds and
the behavioural patterns determining dolphins habitat use. In 191 h of
observation effort, habitat use of Peale's dolphins displayed a significant
concentration in only a small part of the study area, which was strongly
associated with kelp beds. Feeding was the most frequent behaviour observed,
followed by traveling. The former behavioural state was observed principally
inside and on the border of kelp beds, while traveling was observed mainly
outside the beds. Peale's dolphins' preference for kelp beds, which seemed
to be their primary feeding ground, was evident throughout this study. Kelp
forests appear to be a fundamental habitat for Peale's dolphins in coastal
ecosystems, and their protection might be crucial for the conservation of
Peale's dolphin populations.
*****************************************************************
Arronte, J.C.*, J.A. Pis-Millán, and C. Pérez. 2005. Injury to an Atlantic
White-Sided Dolphin (_Lagenorhynchus acutus_) caused by needlefish
impalement _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):184-186.

*Universidad de Oviedo, Facultad de Biologia. Dpto. B.O.S., Area de Zooloia
C/Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071, Oviedo, Spain

Specific interactions between dolphins and other marine species may result
in the injury or death of the individuals involved. This case report
describes a perforating injury to an Atlantic white-sided dolphin,
_Lagenorhynchus acutus_, by a garpike, _Belone belone gracilis_, of the
family Belonidae (needlefishes) in Asturias, Spain. On postmortem
examination, the dolphin had a full-thickness perforation of its right
thoracic wall, with penetration and abscess formation in the right lung due
to a needlefish's lower jaw. The wound appeared to be recently acquired,
based on the absence of reactive fibrosis. No other gross abnormalities were
identified. Results from bacterial and viral analysis on the spleen, liver,
kidney, and left lung were negative. Most likely, death occurred as a result
of an open pneumothorax produced by the traumatic penetrating injury to the
right lung.
*****************************************************************
Blomqvist, C.*, I. Mello, and M. Amundin. 2005. An acoustic play-fight
signal in bottlenose dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_) in human care. _Aquatic
Mammals_ 31(2):187-194. 

*Department of Research and Education, Kolmårdens Djurpark, Kolmården,
Sweden

Play-fighting is common in many mammals, especially among juveniles and
subadults, providing a safe opportunity to practice behaviours important in
adult life. To prevent escalation into a potentially dangerous real fight,
play-fighting often is accompanied by acoustic and/or visual appeasement
behaviours. We studied aggressive and play-fight behaviours in bottlenose
dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_) at the Kolmården Djurpark. The results
showed that play-fighting subadult dolphins emitted a characteristic sound,
which was never observed in aggressive interactions. This was a short pulse
burst followed by an FM-whistle. By plotting pulse repetition rate (PRR) vs.
duration of the bursts, two main clusters were found. The bottom cluster had
a mean PRR of 59 pulses per second (pps), and a mean duration of 154 msec.
The top cluster had a mean PRR of 502 pps and a mean duration of 149 msec.
These play-fight clusters were compared separately to corresponding adult
aggressive pulse burst clusters. Taking both PRR and duration into
consideration, no significant difference was found between the top clusters,
or between the bottom clusters, in the two age groups. The trailing whistles
were divided into five different frequency contour categories. These did not
resemble the signature whistles of any of the play-fighting dolphins. The
average start and end frequencies were 13.0 kHz and 10.1 kHz, respectively,
and the maximum and minimum frequencies were 13.7 kHz and 7.0 kHz,
respectively. The mean duration was 410 msec. Based on the fact that this
sound occurred only in play-fights, we propose that it helps prevent a
play-fight from escalating into a real fight and, hence, is analogous to the
"laugh" and "chuckle" seen in apes.
*****************************************************************
Irwin, L-J. 2005. Marine toxins: adverse health effects and biomonitoring
with resident coastal dolphins. _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):195-225. 

*mailing address: P.O. Box 37, Volcano, HI 96785, USA

Ecotoxicologic studies of marine environments are complex. Expanding
knowledge should take into account toxicology, ecology, biology, medicine,
and global as well as local anthropogenic disturbances of ecosystems. These
areas of interest are discussed, leading to recommendations for
biomonitoring of a specific location. Marine mammals are useful as
bioindicators of environmental disturbance and as sentinels of health risks
for humans who frequently consume seafood. A small community of bottlenose
dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_) in West Galveston Bay, Texas, with strong
site fidelity is discussed here for consideration as a local environmental
biomonitor. These dolphins are subject to a number of environmental impacts,
including industrial toxins, nonpoint source agricultural and residential
runoff, and pollutants from vessels. Other threats include climate change
and toxic algal blooms. Marine mammal mass mortality events linked to
morbillivirus infections in other areas have been associated with one or
more of these environmental disturbances. Toxic effects described in
cetacean literature generally do not include neurotoxic changes because
specific tests for aquatic mammals are not yet available. Neurotoxicity has
been addressed in studies of humans who consume contaminated seafood;
specific findings are included in this review because marine mammals are
likely to be subject to similar adverse effects. Researchers designing
biomonitor studies need to keep in mind the multiple and complex impacts
caused by both local and global issues. Known impacts on Galveston Bay are
outlined and considered in suggesting local biomonitor study designs. Small
populations of near-shore resident dolphins can serve more effectively as
useful upper trophic level environmental bioindicators with such a
multidisciplinary approach.
**************************************************************
Pearson, H.C., and R.W. Davis. 2005. Behavior of territorial male sea otters
(_Enhydra lutris_) in Prince William Sound, Alaska. _Aquatic Mammals_
31(2):226-233. 

Texas A&M University, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Science, 5007
Avenue U, Galveston, Texas 77551, USA

Photo-identification and focal animal sampling were used to examine the
daytime behavior of territorial male sea otters (_Enhydra lutris_) in
Simpson Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska, during the summer (June to
August) of 2003. The average number of otters (all age classes of males and
females) in the study area was 121 ± 12.1 SD (n = 5 surveys). The bout
duration of six behaviors (resting, grooming, foraging, interacting with
other otters, swimming at the surface, and patrolling), activity time
budgets, and interactions with females were determined for territorial
males. Ten males were observed during 183 focal follows (i.e., observation
periods), representing 92 h of observation. More time was spent foraging
(30%) than on any other activity, and foraging bouts were longer than all
other activities. Males interacted with females with pups (59%) and with
single females (41%). Two of three consortships (i.e., mating associations
lasting ca. three days) were formed with single females. Sixty-seven percent
of interactions between territorial males were aggressive and were longer
than one min.
********************************************************
Ribeiro, S.*, F.A. Viddi, and T.R.O. Freitas. 2005. Behavioural responses of
Chilean dolphins (_Cephalorhynchus eutropia_) to boats in Yaldad Bay,
southern Chile. _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):234-242.

*Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Caixa Postal 15007, CEP 91540-000, Porto
Alegre (RS), Brazil

During the austral summer of 2002, theodolite tracking was used to evaluate
Chilean dolphin (_Cephalorhynchus eutropia_) behavioural responses to boats
in Yaldad Bay, southern Chile. This bay represents an important site for the
occurrence of this species. Boat traffic has increased considerably since
1980 in this area due to aquaculture activities. Behavioural responses were
analysed for each dolphin activity, and pre-, during, and post-boat
encounters. When foraging and approached by a vessel, dolphins increased
their reorientation rate, whereas swimming speed showed no significant
change. When traveling, however, dolphins reacted to boats by increasing
their directional swimming speed, while reorientation rate did not differ.
After encounters, dolphins seemed to return quickly to previous behavioural
patterns when traveling, whereas it took longer to establish normal patterns
when foraging. Group dispersion analyses showed that when boats approached
foraging dolphins, they became significantly more cohesively grouped.
Consequently, dolphins reacted negatively to boat presence in Yaldad Bay,
but these responses were conditional on dolphin behavioural activities prior
to boat encounters. These findings emphasize the need to consider boat
traffic disturbance on cetaceans in coastal management plans.
*********************************************
Beekmans, B.W.P.M.*, H. Whitehead, R. Huele, L. Steiner, and A.G. Steenbeek.
Comparison of two computer-assisted photo-identification methods applied to
sperm whales (_Physeter macrocephalus_). _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):243-247.

*Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences
(CML), P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden, the Netherlands

Two computer-assisted photo-identification methods for sperm whales
(_Physeter macrocephalus_), namely the Highlight method (Whitehead, 1990)
and the Europhlukes method (based on Huele et al., 2000), were compared.
Performance was measured in terms of speed and accuracy. A test set was
constructed containing two photographs of each of 296 individuals. The test
set was divided into three classes of photographic quality and three classes
of pattern distinctiveness. Both programs met requirements for rapid
matching; the mean extraction times were 74.2 and 90.1 s per image for the
Highlight and the Europhlukes methods, respectively. The two methods
performed similarly with respect to accuracy. Accuracy improved by using
higher-quality photographs or photographs representing more distinctive
flukes. Still, even when using only the higher-quality photographs, 12.4% of
the matches were not included in the top nine of the list of potential
matches by the Highlight method compared to 14.0% for the Europhlukes
method. The rate of failure to find the true match in the top nine was only
3.3% when both methods were used together, however. It is, therefore,
recommended that for improved matching, both methods should be used in
tandem or that an integrated program, which combines the two methods, should
be developed.
************************************
Morisaka, T.*, M. Shinohara, and M. Taki. 2005. Underwater sounds produced
by neonatal bottlenose dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_): I. Acoustic
characteristics. _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):248-257.

*Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University,
Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan

Bottlenose dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_) communicate using various
acoustic signals, including whistles and pulsed sounds. Many studies have
been conducted on dolphin whistle development over a long span, but little
research has been done on sounds produced by neonatal dolphins just after
birth. For this reason, we studied the acoustic characteristics of
underwater sounds produced by two neonatal dolphins. Both whistles and
burst-pulses were identified as neonatal sounds at 1.5 h after birth.
Whistles became longer by the hour. Whistle durations were highly correlated
with respiration intervals. The neonate randomly produced various types of
whistles, but no dominant whistles were documented. There were significant
differences between neonates in the proportion of whistles to burst-pulses
used, and also in the acoustic characteristics of their whistles. Acoustic
characteristics that are unique to each individual neonate might help a
mother dolphin to recognize her neonate.
********************************************************
Morisaka, T.*, M. Shinohara, and M. Taki. 2005. Underwater sounds produced
by neonatal bottlenose dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_): II. Potential
function. _Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):248-257.

*Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University,
Kitashirakawa-oiwake, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan

Neonatal bottlenose dolphins (_Tursiops truncatus_) produce many sounds just
after birth, including whistles and pulsed sounds. Herein, we report the
possible function of the sounds produced by two captive-born, neonatal
bottlenose dolphin as revealed by behavioural observations. Typical sucking
sounds were observed during 71 to 81% of all suckling bouts. Since the
neonates produced more sounds at the beginning of the suckling sequence than
expected, it appeared that they might use the sounds as care-solicitation
signals or begging signals. These sounds contained a higher proportion of
whistles than sounds in other contexts, which implied that the proportions
of sound types, especially whistles, were important for neonatal dolphins
and their mothers to initiate the nursing sequence.
*********************************
Fertl, D. 2005. Book Review: Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism, and
Management Issues. Editors: N. Gales, M. Hindell, and R. Kirkwood. 
_Aquatic Mammals_ 31(2):266-267.

Geo-Marine, Inc., 550 East 15th Street, Plano, Texas 75074, USA
*************************************
Rendell, L. 2005. Book Review: The Biology of Traditions: Models and
Evidence. Editors: Dorothy M. Fragaszy and Susan Perry. _Aquatic Mammals_
31(2):268-270. 

Sea Mammal Research Unit, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews,
Fife, UK





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